An isolated community near the Black Sea coast in a remote part of north-eastern Turkey has been found to speak a Greek dialect that is remarkably close to the extinct language of ancient Greece.
As few as 5,000 people speak the dialect but linguists believe that it is the closest, living language to ancient Greek and could provide an unprecedented insight into the language of Socrates and Plato and how it evolved.
The community lives in a cluster of villages near the Turkish city of Trabzon in what was once the ancient region of Pontus, a Greek colony that Jason and the Argonauts are supposed to have visited on their epic journey from Thessaly to recover the Golden Fleece from the land of Colchis (present-day Georgia). Pontus was also supposed to be the kingdom of the mythical Amazons, a fierce tribe of women who cut off their right breasts in order to handle their bows better in battle.
Linguists found that the dialect, Romeyka, a variety of Pontic Greek, has structural similarities to ancient Greek that are not observed in other forms of the language spoken today. Romeyka’s vocabulary also has parallels with the ancient language.
Ioanna Sitaridou, a lecturer in romance philology at the University of Cambridge, said: “Romeyka preserves an impressive number of grammatical traits that add an ancient Greek flavour to the dialect’s structure, traits that have been completely lost from other modern Greek varieties.
“Use of the infinitive has been lost in all other Greek dialects known today – so speakers of Modern Greek would say ‘I wasn’t able that I go’ instead of ‘I wasn’t able to go’. But, in Romeyka, not only is the infinitive preserved, but we also find quirky infinitival constructions that have never been observed before – only in the Romance languages are there parallel constructions.”
The villagers who speak Romeyka, which has no written form, show other signs of geographic and cultural isolation. They rarely marry outside their own community and they play a folk music on a special instrument, called a kemenje in Turkish and Romeyka or lyra as it is called in Greek, Dr Sitaridou said. “I only know of one man who married outside his own village,” she said. “The music is distinctive and cannot be mistaken for anything else. It is clearly unique to the speakers of Romeyka.”
One possibility is that Romeyka speakers today are the direct descendants of ancient Greeks who lived along the Black Sea coast millennia ago – perhaps going back to the 6th or 7th centuries BC when the area was first colonised. But it is also possible that they may be the descendants of indigenous people or an immigrant tribe who were encouraged or forced to speak the language of the ancient Greek colonisers.
Romeykas-speakers today are devout Muslims, so they were allowed to stay in Turkey after the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, when some two million Christians and Muslims were exchanged between Greece and Turkey. Repeated waves of emigration, the dominant influence of the Turkish-speaking majority, and the complete absence of Romeyka from the public arena, have now put it on the list of the world’s most endangered languages.
“With as few as 5,000 speakers left in the area, before long, Romeyka could be more of a heritage language than a living vernacular. With its demise would go an unparalleled opportunity to unlock how the Greek language has evolved,” said Dr Sitaridou. “Imagine if we could speak to individuals whose grammar is closer to the language of the past. Not only could we map out a new grammar of a contemporary dialect but we could also understand some forms of the language of the past. This is the opportunity that Romeyka presents us with.”
Studies of the grammar of Romeyka show that it shares a startling number of similarities with Koine Greek of Hellenistic and Roman times, which was spoken at the height of Greek influence across Asia Minor between the 4th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Modern Greek, meanwhile, has undergone considerable changes from its ancient counterpart, and is thought to have emerged from the later Medieval Greek spoken between the 7th and 13th Centuries AD – so-called Byzantine Greek.
Future research will try to assess how Pontic Greek from the Black Sea coast evolved over the centuries. “We know that Greek has been continuously spoken in Pontus since ancient times and can surmise that its geographic isolation from the rest of the Greek-speaking world is an important factor in why the language is as it is today,” Dr Sitaridou said. “What we don’t yet know is whether Romeyka emerged in exactly the same way as other Greek dialects but later developed its own unique characteristics which just happen to resemble archaic Greek.
Many of the world’s languages are disappearing as once-isolated populations become part of the global economy, with children failing to learn the language of their grandparents and instead using the dominant language of the majority population, which in this part of the world is Turkish.
“In Pontus, we have near-perfect experimental conditions to assess what may be gained and what may be lost as a result of language contact,” Dr Sitaridou said.
No evidence of support for poor while wives live large at resort.
NEW YORK – Funds contributed in the United States to a 501(c)3 foundation run by President Obama’s older half-brother, Abongo “Roy” Malik Obama, have been diverted to support Malik’s multiple wives in Kenya, an expert on Islamic extremism has charged.
Walid Shoebat, an Arabic-speaking former Muslim Brotherhood member, has detailed his allegations in a 22-page investigative report titled “New IRS Scandal: Islamic Extremism and Sex Slaves: Report Reveals Obama’s Relatives Run Charities of Deceit,” published on his website
After a thorough examination of available evidence, Shoebat explained to WND his allegations against the Obama family tax-exempt foundations:
For the past two years, long before the current IRS scandals became public, WND has been reporting irregularities in two IRS-approved 501(c)3 organizations operated in the U.S. by Obama’s half-brother and step-grandmother in Kenya:
WND reported in September 2011 the Barack H. Obama Foundation apparently received IRS approval one month after an application was submitted in May 2011. The IRS determination letter June 11, 2011, granted a highly irregular retroactive tax-exempt approval only after the group came under fire for operating as a 501(c)3 foundation since 2008 without ever having applied to the IRS.
In October 2012, WND reported a separate foundation, the Mama Sarah Obama Foundation, created on behalf of Obama’s step-grandmother in Kenya, has transferred funds, 90 percent of which are raised from U.S. individuals and corporations, to send Kenyan students to the top three most radical Wahhabist madrassas in Saudi Arabia.
Since its founding in 2008, the Barack H. Obama Foundation, operating out of a commercial mail drop in Arlington, Va., has solicited tax-deductible contributions on the Internet, listing addresses and telephone numbers both in the U.S. and Kenya, without disclosing the group lacked an IRS determination letter.
In September 2011, the IRS confirmed to WND that the Barack H. Obama Foundation had received a determination letter in June 2011, awarding the group tax-exempt 501(c)3 status retro-actively to 2008.
WANTED FOR CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY: David Cameron, George Osborne, Iain Duncan Smith, (a.k.a. Minister for Manslaughter)
HUNGRY SCHOOL CHILDREN ARE BEING FED BY SYMPATHETIC TEACHERS. SUICIDES ARE RAPIDLY ON THE INCREASE AND UNREPORTED. A MAN HAS TO GO ON HUNGER STRIKE IN A DESPERATE CRY FOR HELP….. IS ANYONE OUT THERE LISTENING OR ARE YOU WAITING FOR THE GOVERNMENT PROVIDED RATIONALE??
It is IMPORTANT that we share this as widely as possible and bombard the mainstream media with it and enlist the help and support of celebrities. Suicides are rapidly on the increase throughout the UK, with the case of Stephanie Bottrill being only briefly covered by the media. If the TV news media refuse to Continue reading →
Monsanto’s Congressional Cartel: List of Senators Who Betrayed Constituents in Favor of Biotech Dollars
By Daisy Luther
Once upon a time, a system was designed in which “the people” elected delegates to go to Washington DC. These members of Congress had the specific duty of representing the wishes of their constituencies when laws were being voted upon.
The success of last weekend’s March Against Monsanto should have made it very clear that a great many people wish to see, at the very least, labels on toxic GMO foods. The fact that this success was covered up by the media does NOT mean that the members of Congress were unaware of it – just the opposite. Our success was frightening, and that is why it was covered up.
Despite that, the day before the event, an amendment to the farm bill that would have allowed the individual states to pass laws protecting consumers from unlabeled GMOs was quietly shot down in the Senate with a vote of 71-27 against this right. The timing of this betrayal, right before a long weekend, goes along with the general modus operandi of sliding through things that will meet with objections from the public when they Continue reading →
|The Great Culling of the human race already has begun. Covertly, insidiously, mercilessly, a global depopulation agenda has been launched.
As this plays out, the vast majority of the human race will be removed from the gene pool. Genetically annihilated. Will you and your genetic lineage survive?
It is being done through chemicals added to our drinking water, food, medicines, and the air we breathe – chemicals that have the known effect of reducing fertility and shortening lifespan.
This documentary is the first of a three-part series. It shows how additives to our drinking water, such as fluoride, supposedly to combat tooth decay, in reality are covert doses of death. It also shows how you can protect yourself and your family.
Film-makers Paul Wittenberger (What In The World Are They Spraying?) and Chris Maple explore WHAT are the real threats to your life, your offspring and your genetic integrity?
Watch the full documentary now – 93 min
Source: Top Documentary Films
|Most people never even heard of HAARP, but fact is, HAARP installations exist and are most likely than not, responsible for a lot of foul weather and earthquakes in the past 15 years. Investigate and you will find the facts. Or just stay ignorant and blissful. It’s up to you.
Your Country/family/friends/patriots, fellow human beings, nature and our Mother Earth need you to “WAKE UP”. This weapon was brought into the world over a hundred years ago by Nikola Tesla and patented by Bernard Eastlund. US PATENT #4,686,605 http://crashrecovery.org/haarp/US-Patent-No-4.686.605.pdf
Note from Leuren Moret
I identified the HAARP sites two years ago. They left some key ones out: Chile (H.A.A.R.P earthquake as President was sworn in), Cyprus (Black Sea Storm), Dushanbe Tajikstan (Tien Shan gold belt), and ANTARCTICA – the most important one. Plus, they forgot all the Russian installations – more than any other country.
Here are the main mining projects of Eurasian Mining Company inc. which are all located where mining riches are located “Bill Clinton Uranium Scandal”
started by Frank Giustra who flies around the world with Bill Clinton to secure mining contracts in these key places after Clinton introduces him to the Pres. of the country he wants to mine in.
After the contracts are signed in each country, Giustra forks over $150 million to Clinton’s foundation. Wasn’t Clinton involved in Haiti, etc, etc, where all this mineral loot is?
THE HAARP SITES ARE LOCATED GLOBALLY WHERE THE RICHEST MINERAL BELTS ARE LOCATED. SUBSURFACE MINERAL EXPLORATION HAS BEEN DONE FROM SATELLITES BY RADIOTOMOGRAPHY THAT IS 100% ACCURATE.
|AO says: Hey, before you get to Lauren Moret’s article and before you attack me read the ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS on depopulation from their ORIGINAL sources.
By: Leuren Moret
Research on population control, preventing future births, is now being carried out secretly by biotech companies. Dr. Ignacio Chapela, a University of California microbiologist, discovered that wild corn in remote parts of Mexico is contaminated with lab altered DNA. That discovery made him a threat to the biotech industry.
Chapela was denied tenure at UC Berkeley when he reported this to the scientific community, despite the embarrassing discovery that UC Chancellor Berdahl, who was denying him tenure, was getting large cash payments – $40,000 per year – from the LAM Research Corp. in Plano, Texas.
Berdahl served as president of Texas A&M University before coming to Berkeley. During a presentation about his case, Chapela revealed that a spermicidal corn developed by a U.S. company is now being tested in Mexico. Males who unknowingly Continue reading →
Today, newborn babies are injected with as many as 30+ vaccines before the age of 3. Within these vaccines is a number of ingredients that are anything but natural and have been shown to be unsafe. Vaccines contain Mercury, Msg, Formaldehyde, Aluminum and are the cause of multiple diseases.
The hepatitis B vaccine has been linked to auto-immune disorders. An autoimmune disorder is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. There are more than 80 different types of autoimmune disorders.
In 2001, a United States court sided with the estate of Tambra Harris who died as a result of an auto-immune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus, (SLE) which Continue reading →
|Irrefutable Evidence Shows Historical Application of Vaccines Had No Health Benefit or Impact on Prevention of Infectious Disease
A summary review of data on neurological adverse events and the historical role of vaccination in the natural course of infectious disease in Switzerland and Germany, supports data from other regions with evidence that vaccines had no impact on disease prevention efforts from the early-mid to late 20th century. The data contradicts widespread misinformation campaigns by mainstream medicine which claim that vaccination led to immunization and a subsequent decline in infectious disease. The review supports other data around the world and mounting evidence that vaccine effectiveness is unproven, unjustified and lacking evidence-based medicine. The report was authored by the Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland and published in Progress in Health Sciences a division of The International Journal of Health Sciences.
There is now mass awareness on the dangers of vaccination and only education Continue reading →
More Lies & Misinfo by the BBC – BBC News Removes False News Claims About Measles Epidemic “after being busted”
|CHS,- How times change. A month ago health officials were predicting a UK-wide measles epidemic with multiple measles deaths and disabilities, with everyone not previously vaccinated to get the MMR vaccine.
Welsh Health officials were first caught out when the British media discovered that the figures being given out to them were of only suspected cases and that doctors massively over-report measles cases. As CHS has reported, sometimes as many as 73 in every 74 reports are NOT measles: [Laboratory confirmed cases of measles, mumps, and rubella, England and Wales: October to December 2004 – CDR Weekly, Volume 15 Number 12 Published: 24 March 2005: Vaccines Did Not Save Us – 2 Centuries Of Official Statistics].
Even the standard general officially published “blurb” available online confirms this but Public Health Wales appears to have omitted to tell the media:
|By Tracy Andrews Wolf
Gardasil, cervical cancer protection?
Six years have passed since Alexis received three shots of Gardasil. Six years of suffering for no good reason. Now, I live in constant fear of what might happen during my daughter’s next seizure.
I wake up around 5am every morning in a panic. My heart is racing and I desperately try to stop my mind from thinking the worst, never knowing what to expect. Some nights she knocks on my door every hour because she is having so many seizures that she is totally confused. Some days when she gets undressed for her bath she has dark bruises, with no knowledge of how they got there. Sometimes she has knots on her head and doesn’t remember hitting her head. If she doesn’t have her mouth piece in while having a seizure, then blood pours out of her mouth because of grinding her teeth and they get chipped and loose. Every morning I awake in fear, wondering if Alexis is still with us.
Alexis and her younger sister used to be so close, I asked Kimber to write down her Continue reading →