Monthly Archives: November, 2016

World Wars I & II, Middle East History & the STATE OF ISRAEL

In 1898, Sultan Abdul Hamid II purchased rifles from Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II for use in liquidating Turkey’s Armenian population in exchange for granting Germany rights to build an Istanbul-Baghdad railway to access Iraq’s oil fields.

Sultan Abdul Hamid II was deposed and on January 23, 1913, three Pashas: Ismail Enver Pasha, Mehmed Talaat Pasha, and Ahmed Djemal Pasha–known as “The Young Turks” –staged a Ottoman coup d’état in Turkey.

Turkey then waged the Balkan Wars and began a genocide of millions of Armenians, Assyrians, Greeks, and other minorities in their plan of “Ottomanization”–creating a centralized, homogeneous nation of one race, one language, and one religion–Islam.

Kaiser Wilhelm II quickly sent military officers to train and upgrade Turkey’s forces, resulting in a Ottoman-German Alliance.

In 1914, World War I began, involving more than 70 million military personnel and resulting in over 38 million casualties.

Allied Powers included: Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, Belgium, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Hejaz, Greece, Thailand Siam, and the United States.

Central Powers included: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Turkish Ottoman Empire.

As World War I progressed, Britain’s war effort was hindered by their ineffective manufacturing of explosives.

Britain’s situation suddenly changed when a chemist made a breakthrough in synthesizing the needed solvent “acetone” by using a bacterial fermentation process.

The chemist was Dr. Chaim Weizmann, born NOVEMBER 27, 1874.
His Jewish family had immigrated from Russia after Anti-Jewish pogroms of 1881-1884, the stories of which were the basis for the famous musical Fiddler on the Roof.

In gratitude for Dr. Chaim Weizmann’s significant contributions to the nation’s military, Britain’s Foreign Secretary Lord Arthur Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration, November 2, 1917, establishing a home for Jews in the former Turkish land now under British control.

In his autobiography, Trial and Error (1949), Dr. Weizmann recounted his response to Lord Balfour’s initial offer of giving Jews the British controlled country of Uganda:

“‘Mr. Balfour, supposing I was to offer you Paris instead of London, would you take it?’ He sat up, looked at me, and answered: ‘But Dr. Weizmann, we have London.’ ‘That is true,’ I said, ‘but we had Jerusalem when London was a marsh.’

He … said two things which I remember vividly. The first was: ‘Are there many Jews who think like you?’ I answered: ‘I believe I speak the mind of millions of Jews whom you will never see and who cannot speak for themselves’ … To this he said: ‘If that is so you will one day be a force.'”

British Prime Minister Lloyd-George had met with Chaim Weizmann in 1916, writing in his War Memoirs:

“(Weizmann) explained his aspirations as to the repatriation of the Jews to the sacred land they had made famous. That was the fount and origin of the famous declaration about the National Home for the Jews in Palestine … As soon as I became Prime Minister I talked the whole matter over with Mr Balfour, who was then Foreign Secretary.”

In January of 1919, thirty-two nations met at the Paris Peace Conference where they agreed to the Treaty of Versailles and planned the League of Nations.

Delegates formally determined the fate of post-war Europe, intending to follow Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points and the principle of self-determination, where people of different ethnic backgrounds would be allowed to determine their own fate.


Lands which had been controlled by the defeated Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Turkish Ottoman Empire, were divided up to create homelands for Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Hungarians, Slovenes, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Croats.

The Balfour Declaration gave an area called the British Mandate to the Jews, stretching from Lebanon and Syria in the North; to Egypt and Arabia in the South; from the Mediterranean in the East; to Iraq in the West.


The inspiration for Jews resettling their homeland came from Theodore Herzl’s Zionist movement, which initially grew out of America’s 19th century Second Great Awakening Religious Revival where evangelical Christians preached that Jewish resettlement was necessary before Christ’s coming and the Advent of the Millennium.

Lord Balfour addressed a Jewish gathering, February 7,1918:

“My personal hope is that the Jews will make good in Palestine and eventually found a Jewish state. It is up to them now; we have given them their great opportunity.”

Also, during World War I, an obscure British lieutenant serving in Cairo, T.E. Lawrence, had been sent off to assess if undisciplined Arab tribes were capable of helping to fight Ottoman Turks.

Instead of simply reporting back, T.E. Lawrence took it upon himself to persuade Arabs to fight the Turks in exchange for an unauthorized promises of land.


Lawrence’s promise conflicted with a Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 between Britain, France and Russia for governing the post-war Middle East and Turkey, thus laying the groundwork for future land disputes, especially after Russia’s fall in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution.

Democrat President Woodrow Wilson expressed enthusiastic support of Israel, as he wrote to Rabbi Stephen A. Wise, 1918:

“I think all Americans will be deeply moved by the report that … the Weizmann commission has been able to lay the foundation of the Hebrew University at Jerusalem.”

Rabbi Stephen A. Wise described Woodrow Wilson: “He is one of the great presidents of American history.”

Justice Louis Brandeis, who was nominated by Woodrow Wilson to the U.S. Supreme Court, told Reform Rabbis in April 1915:

“The undying longing of Jews for Palestine is a fact of deepest significance; that it is a manifestation in the struggle for existence by an ancient people which has established its right to live, a people whose three thousand years of civilization has produced a faith, culture and individuality which enable it to contribute largely in the future, as it has in the past.”

During World War I, the leader who cooperated with the British by leading the Arab Revolt against the Turks was the Hashemite Sharif of Mecca, Hussein ibn-Ali. He stated in 1918:

“The resources of the country are still virgin soil and will be developed by the Jewish immigrants … That the country (is) for its original sons, for all their differences, a sacred and beloved homeland.”

Hussein ibn-Ali’s son, Faisal ibn-Husseini, was recognized by Britain as the new King of Syria and Iraq.


Faisal represented the Arab nations at the Paris Peace Conference, and signed the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, January 3, 1919, adopting the Balfour principles:

“Article IV-All necessary measures shall be taken to encourage and stimulate immigration of Jews into Palestine on a large scale, and as quickly as possible to settle Jewish immigrants upon the land through closer settlement and intensive cultivation of the soil.”

Faisal wrote a letter, March 3, 1919, to Felix Frankfurter, who was later nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court by Franklin D. Roosevelt. The letter stated:

“We feel that the Arabs and Jews are cousins in having suffered similar oppressions at the hands of powers stronger than themselves …

We Arabs, especially the educated among us look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement …


We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home …
With the chiefs of your movement, especially with Dr. Weizmann, we … continue to have the closest relations. He has been a great helper of our cause, and I hope the Arabs may soon be in a position to make the Jews some return for their kindness …

… Our two movements complete one another. The Jewish movement is national and not imperialist. Our movement is national and not imperialist, and there is room in Syria for us both …

People … less responsible than our leaders … have been trying to exploit the local difficulties that must necessarily arise in Palestine … to make capital out of what they call our differences.”

Felix Frankfurter replied:

“ROYAL HIGHNESS: Allow me … to acknowledge your recent letter with deep appreciation.

Those of us who come from the United States have already been gratified by the friendly relations … between you and the Zionist leaders, particularly Dr. Weizmann

We knew that the aspirations of the Arab and the Jewish peoples were parallel, that each aspired to re-establish its nationality in its own homeland, each making its own distinctive contribution to civilization, each seeking its own peaceful mode of life …

The Arabs and Jews are neighbors in territory; we cannot but live side by side as friends.”

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In 1920, a hastily convened San Remo Conference gave France a “mandate” to oversee post-war Syria. France immediately invaded and expelled Faisal, leaving him King only of Iraq.


Faisal’s brother, Abdullah, planned to mount an attack, but Winston Churchill persuaded him not to, agreeing instead to recognize Abdullah as King of a part of the British protectorate which had previously been given to the Jews. It was named “Transjordan” as it was on the other side of the Jordan River.


In an abrupt turn against the Jews, Britain issued White Papers in 1922 deterring further Jewish resettlement of their homeland–a proposal ironically instigated by Britain’s anti-Zionist Jews.

Chaim Weizmann referred to these anti-Zionist Jews, which included Claude Montefiore, Lord Reading, Edwin Montagu and Lucien Wolf, in his autobiography, Trial and Error (1949):

“Their secular representative, the secretary of the Conjoint Committee, was Mr. Lucien Wolf … in whom the opposition to Zionism was a mixture of principle and of personal idiosyncrasy …

He resented the rise of what he called ‘foreign Jews’ in England, looked upon the Foreign Office as his patrimony — he was of an old Anglo-Jewish family — and put me down as a poacher …

Zionism was in his view a purely East European movement … beneath the notice of respectable British Jews.

It was … impossible for him to understand that English non-Jews did not look upon his anti-Zionism as the hallmark of a superior loyalty.

It was never borne in on him that men like Balfour, Churchill, Lloyd George, were deeply religious, and believed in the Bible, that to them the return of the Jewish people to Palestine was a reality, so that we Zionists represented to them a great tradition for which they had enormous respect …”

Chaim Weizmann continued:
“I remember Prime Minister Lloyd George saying to me, a few days before the issuance of the Balfour Declaration:

‘I know that with the issuance of this Declaration I shall please one group of Jews and displease another. I have decided to please your group because you stand for a great idea.'”


Meanwhile, in 1924, King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud of the House of Saud, allied withfundamentalist Wahhabi (Salafi) movement to oust Hussein bin Ali, the brother of King Faisal of Iraq and King Abdullah of Transjordan.

This ended the Hashemite rule in Arabia, and discontinued the tradition of their relatively moderate descendants being the “Sharif of Mecca”– a role they had held since the 10th century.

In 1937, Standard Oil Company of California discovered oil in Saudi Arabia, and within a few decades, Saudi Arabia went from the poorest Muslim country to the richest.

An Arabian-American Oil Company was formed called “Aramco.”

King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud practiced Islamic polygamy, having many wives and 45 sons. With his new found wealth, he began to spread the fundamentalist Wahhabi (Salafi) Sharia version of Islam, which has the goal of establishing global Caliphate of Islamic Sharia domination.

Meanwhile, World War II began in 1939, involving more than 30 countries and over 100 million people.

Fatalities are estimated as high as 85 million, making it the deadliest war in human history.


During the war, millions of Jews were persecuted and killed in Europe by Germany’s National Socialist Workers Party.

Hitler initially expelled Jews from Europe, from where many found a way to their ancient homeland.


The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin al-Husseini, traveled to Berlin and met with Hitler on November 28, 1941. confirming their mutual hatred of “the English, the Jews, and the Communists.”


Haj Amin al-Husseini insisted Hitler publicly commit to “the elimination of the Jewish national home.”

During World War II, Democrat President Franklin Roosevelt coined the name “United Nations” for the Allied countries working together against the Axis Powers.

Roosevelt explained that the goal of this new organization included protecting Jews, March 24, 1944:

“The United Nations are fighting to make a world in which tyranny and aggression cannot exist …

In one of the blackest crimes of all history — begun by the Nazis … the wholesale systematic murder of the Jews of Europe goes on unabated … Hundreds of thousands of Jews … are now threatened with annihilation as Hitler’s forces descend

The United Nations have made it clear that they will pursue the guilty … All who knowingly take part in the deportation of Jews to their death … are equally guilty with the executioner.”

On November 11, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt complimented the Jewish Theological Seminary of America: “A victory of the United Nations is to be a world of enduring peace … founded on renewed loyalty to the spiritual values …

In cooperation with Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant scholars … it will in time, I trust, become an increasingly powerful instrument for enlightening men of all faiths.”

Near the end of World War II, February 4-11, 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin at the Yalta Conference to decide how to divide up post-war Europe.

Roosevelt, being in a feeble condition just two months before his death, capitulated to Stalin’s demand that millions of Eastern Europeans be dominated by the totalitarian Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

On his way home from the Yalta Conference, in declining health, Franklin Roosevelt stopped in Saudi Arabia to meet with King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud on the USS Quincy in the Suez Canal, February 14, 1945.

Roosevelt’s intention was to persuade the Saudi King to support Jewish immigration to Palestine.

The King Abdul Aziz slaughtered a goat on deck for their meal, then proceeded to convince Roosevelt to abandon his plans of supporting the Jewish homeland.

Saudi King Abdul Aziz then persuaded the ailing Roosevelt to make a secret oil-for-security agreement, where the United States would supply military assistance, training and built a military base in Arabia in exchange for secure access to Saudi oil.

The Saudi King followed up with a letter to Roosevelt, who wrote back, April 5, 1945, promising that the United States would not to recognize a Jewish State.

One week later, Roosevelt was dead of his illnesses.

The next President, Harry S Truman, immediately proceeded with plans to recognize the State of Israel.

The United Nations Charter was signed June 26, 1945, by 51 member nations.

One of its first acts was the recognition of the State of Israel in 1948.

The negotiator of the Middle East Armistice Agreement was Ralph Bunche, the African American diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.


On November 29, 1948, Democrat President Harry S Truman wrote to Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the first President of Israel:

“I remember well our conversations about the Negeb … I agree fully with your estimate of the importance of the area to Israel, and I deplore any attempt to take it away from Israel.

I had thought that my position would have been clear to all the world, particularly in the light of the specific wording of the Democratic Party platform.”


The 1948 Democrat Party Platform stated:

President Truman, by granting immediate recognition to Israel, led the world in extending friendship and welcome to a people who have long sought and justly deserve freedom and independence.

…We pledge full recognition to the State of Israel.
We affirm our pride that the United States under the leadership of President Truman played a leading role in the adoption of the resolution of November 29, 1947, by the United Nations General Assembly for the creation of a Jewish State.

We approve the claims of the State of Israel to the boundaries set forth in the United Nations resolution of November 29th and consider that modifications thereof should be made only if fully acceptable to the State of Israel.
We look forward to the admission of the State of Israel to the United Nations and its full participation in the international community of nations.

…We pledge appropriate aid to the State of Israel in developing its economy and resources.
We favor the revision of the arms embargo to accord to the State of Israel the right of self-defense.”

Harry S Truman recorded in his book, Memoirs-Volume Two: Years of Trial and Hope, 1956, of a note he had written to an assistant: “I surely wish God Almighty would give the Children of Israel an Isaiah, the Christians a St. Paul, and the Sons of Ishmael a peep at the Golden Rule.”


President Truman concluded his letter to Israel’s President Dr. Chaim Weizmann, November 29, 1948: “I have interpreted my re-election as a mandate … to carry out … the plank on Israel … In closing, I want to tell you how happy and impressed I have been at the remarkable progress made by the new State of Israel.”

Dr. Chaim Weizmann had stated: “I think that the God of Israel is with us.”

 

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Counter-terrorism and counter-law

Quick one: here are the title, abstract and references of a paper I’ve just submitted for publication. (Fuller, Hegel and Bhaskar, together at last!) Terrorism: that obscure object of counter…

Source: Counter-terrorism and counter-law

ISLAM to DARK AGES to AGE OF DISCOVERY to RENAISSANCE to REFORMATION to RELIGIOUS WARS to REVOLUTION

 

ISLAM to DARK AGES
to AGE OF DISCOVERY
to RENAISSANCE
to REFORMATION
to RELIGIOUS WARS
to REVOLUTION
In 12 years after Mohammed’s death, 632-644 AD, Muslim jihadists conquered the Eastern Roman Empire, Syria, Palestine, Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt and North Africa.
Muslim pirates then terrorized the Mediterranean, blockading trade routes. This caused economic disaster in Roman Europe by diminishing products moving East to West.An important item no longer shipped was papyrus — reeds from the Nile delta which were used for paper in Europe.
The sudden shortage of paper contributed to a decline in literacy, fewer books being written, and Europe entering the DARK AGES.
Similar to present-day reports of ISIS destroying 100,000 ancient books in the Central Library of Mosul, Iraq, the 7th century account is related of Muslim warriors destroying Egypt’s ancient library in Alexandria — the largest and oldest library in the world.

The incident, according to Abd-Al-Latif of Baghdad (1162-1231), Jamal Ad-din Al-Kufti (1169-1248), and Bar Hebraeus (1226-1286), was that when Caliph Omar was asked what to do with Alexandria’s Library, he replied:

“If those books are in agreement with the Qur’an, we have no need of them; and if these are opposed to the Qur’an, destroy them.”

It supposedly took 6 months to burn them all.


Muslim Caliph Al-Ma’mun of the Abbasid Dynasty ordered raiders to break into the Great Pyramid of Giza in 832 AD in search of treasure.


An Islamic Hadiths is:
“Do not leave an image without obliterating it, or a high grave without leveling it. This hadith has been reported by Habib with the same chain of transmitters and he said: Do not leave a picture without obliterating it.” (Hadith Bk 4, No. 2115)

Six hundred years later, Ottoman Muslims sacked Constantinople in 1453.
Graves were desecrated and the largest Christian Church in the world, the Hagia Sophia, was turned into a mosque.
The Ottoman conquest ended land trade routes from Europe to India and China.This led explorer Vasco de Gama to sail from Portugal around South Africa to India, 1497-1499, preceded five years earlier by Christopher Columbus attempting to sail west to India in 1492.  Convinced he had reached India, Columbus named the people he met “Indians.”
This began a period of exploration known as the AGE OF DISCOVERY.
Ottoman Muslims invaded further into the Greece Byzantine Empire, destroying churches, schools, museums art, and graves.Greeks hurriedly fled with their treasures, art and literature to Florence, Italy.This flood of ancient culture into Western Europe sparked a re-discovery of Greek culture called the RENAISSANCE.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), considered one of the Fathers of the French Revolution, owned a dog he named “Sulan.” He wrote a Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, 1750 (translated by Ian Johnston), stating:

“Europe had fallen back into the barbarity … A revolution was necessary to bring men back to common sense, and it finally came from a quarter where one would least expect it. It was the stupid Muslim, the eternal blight on learning, who brought about its rebirth among us.

The collapse of the throne of Constantine carried into Italy the debris of ancient Greece. France, in its turn, was enriched by these precious remnants. The sciences soon followed letters. To the art of writing was joined the art of thinking.”

As the wealth of Greek Byzantine Empire flowed into Florence, Italy, many were made rich, most notably the families of Medici and Borgia, who financed artists Michelangelo and Leonardo DaVinci.

Condemning the rising materialism and sensualism in Florence was the religious preacher Savonarola, leading a notable Christian revival, inspiring crowds of thousands.

Political leaders succeeded in having him excommunicated, arrested, tortured and executed.

Greek scholars fleeing the Ottoman invasion also brought to Europe the Greek Bible, which was translated by Erasmus.

This interest in the original language of New Testament–Greek–contributed to the REFORMATION, begun by Martin Luther in 1517.


The King of France, Francis I, caused a scandal in Europe by making an alliance with Muslim Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent against Italy, Spain and England.


Francis I ordered the punishment of religious dissidents known as Waldensians.

Over the next century, RELIGIOUS WARS resulted in tragic atrocities committed by both Protestant and Catholic armies against each other.


Lorenzo de’ Medici
, to whom Niccolò Machiavelli dedicated his notorious book, The Prince, 1515, had his daughter, Catherine de’ Medici, marry the next King of France, Henry II.

Henry II suppressed Protestant Huguenots in France.

After his death, Catherine de’ Medici was credited with the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris in 1572, after which Protestants fled France.


Catherine de’ Medici’s teenage son, King Francis II, was married to Mary-Queen of Scots, as France had for centuries helped Scotland struggle for independence from England.

When King Francis II died at age 16, Mary-Queen of Scots, age 18, returned to Scotland in 1561.


She was immediately criticized by Protestant Reformer John Knox from the pulpit.

John Knox had been arrested as a young man and sentenced in 1547 to be a galley slave on a French ship. Sailing away from Scotland, John Knox looked up as they passed St. Andrews and said:

“I see the steeple of that place where God first in public opened my mouth to glory; and I am fully persuaded… I shall not depart this life till my tongue shall glorify his godly name in the same place.”

After two years, John Knox was released and exiled to England.
John Knox rose to be the royal chaplain to the young King Edward VI where he helped influence the writing of the Book of Common Prayer.
When King Edward died, his sister Queen Mary Tudor took the throne and attempted to bring England back under the Catholic Church.

John Knox escaped England to Geneva, Switzerland, where he met Reformer John Calvin.

Through Knox, John Calvin’s beliefs not only influenced Scotland, but also the millions of Scots, Scots-Irish, Puritan and Presbyterian immigrants who came to America.


TIME Magazine published the article “Looking to Its Roots” (May 25, 1987):

“Ours is the only country deliberately founded on a good idea. That good idea combines a commitment to man’s inalien­able rights with the Calvinist belief in an ultimate moral right and sinful man’s obligation to do good. These articles of faith, embodied in the Declaration of Independence and in the Constitu­tion, literally govern our lives today.”

Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft published a ten-volume History of the United States, the first comprehensive history of America. He wrote: “He who will not honor the memory and respect the influence of Calvin knows little of the origin of American liberty.”

John Calvin advised the Jeanne d’Albret Queen Regnant of Navarre: “Now that the government is in your hands, God will test your zeal and fidelity. You now have an obligation to purge your lands of idolatry by taking into consideration the difficulties which can hold you back, the fears and doubts which can sap courage.

And I do not doubt that your advisors, if they look to this world, will try to stop you.  I know the arguments advanced to prove that princes should not force their subjects to lead a Christian life, but all kingdoms which do not serve that of Jesus Christ are ruined. So judge for yourself.  I do not say that all can be done in a day.”

John Calvin told the Queen Regnant of Navarre, April 28, 1545:
“A dog barks when his master is attacked. I would be a coward if I saw that God’s truth is attacked and yet would remain silent.”

When John Knox returned to Scotland, he followed Calvin’s example of confronting monarchs.
John Knox, who died NOVEMBER 24, 1572, had stated:

“A man with God is always in the majority.”


Knox preached a sermon in St. Andrews which incited hearers to smash statues and loot Catholic churches.
Through the efforts of John Knox, the Scottish Parliament officially accepted the Reformation in 1560, beginning the Presbyterian Church.

Mary-Queen of Scots had unfortunate events in her personal life.
She had married Lord Darnley in 1565, but he became jealous of Mary’s private secretary, David Rizzio, and had him murdered.
Lord Darnley was then suspiciously killed two years later in an explosion.
The chief suspect in his murder was the Earl of Bothwell, who manipulated Mary into marrying him a month later.
This upheaval resulted in the Scottish Parliament forcing Mary to abdicate her throne. She was replaced by her and Lord Darnley’s infant son, James.
James, at the age of 13 months, was crowned King James VI of Scotland.John Knox gave the coronation sermon.The Earl of Bothwell tried to raise forces to return Mary-Queen of Scots to her throne, but he was captured in Norway and died in prison.


Mary-Queen of Scots fled to England in 1568 to be protected by her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I, who turned this into her forced custody for 19 years.


Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn.
Anne Boleyn had refused to be another of Henry’s mistresses, so Henry divorced his first wife, broke with the Roman Catholic Church and began the Anglican Church.

Henry VIII later beheaded Anne Boleyn.
The fate of Henry VIII’s six wives were:
-Catherine of Aragon, divorced;
-Anne Boleyn, beheaded;
-Jane Seymour, died;
-Anne of Cleves, divorced;
-Catherine Howard, beheaded;
-Catherine Parr, survived.


Elizabeth I sent Sir Francis Drake to circumnavigate the globe, 1577-1580.
She sent Sir Walter Raleigh to found a colony in America in 1584, which he named “Virginia” after the virgin Queen Elizabeth.

Elizabeth was made aware of a plot against her life, which questionably implicated her captive Catholic cousin Mary-Queen of Scots.

Elizabeth tragically signed the order for Mary’s execution in 1587. Catholics in England went into hiding or fled. Large numbers of priests sent to England were captured and executed.

In 1588, Elizabeth had Sir Francis Drake fight the Spanish Armada.

The seriousness of Spain’s threat led Queen Elizabeth to make a treaty with Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur and with the Ottoman Sultan Murad III against Spain.

When Elizabeth died in 1603, the son of Mary-Queen of Scots was made King of England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland as King James I.

King James I had been raised by Scottish Presbyterian Protestant tutors.

He was responsible for arranging both Anglican and Puritan scholars to work together to produce the King James Bible – the best-selling book of all time.

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King James I is the namesake of Jamestown, Virginia – the first permanent English settlement in America. The Pilgrims were sailing on the Mayflower ship to join the Jamestown Colony when the got blown off course in a winter storm and landed at Cape Cod.


The Pilgrims had no charter from the King so they wrote their famous Mayflower Compact.
When Spanish and Italian Catholic troops plotted to help Ireland break from Anglican English control, beginning in 1569, the English crushed the attempt and executed thousands of Irish Catholics.

The Irish had their crops and farms destroyed, leading to famine and disease and thousands dying. Over the next century, the British killed over a half-million Irish Catholics and sold the same number into slavery in the West Indies, Virginia, New England, Barbados and Virginia.


In an effort to make Ireland more Protestant, Britain relocated 200,000 Presbyterians from Scotland to Ireland. In the following years, crop failures, the collapsing linen trade, and increased rents caused over a million Scots and Scots-Irish Protestant Presbyterian descendants to leave Ireland and immigrate to the American colonies.

Between 1717 and 1775, over 200,000 Scots-Irish migrated to America, becoming a third of the country’s population.

At the time of the REVOLUTION, the population of America was around 3 million, of which Puritans comprised about 600,000.

Other settlers included: 900,000 Scots and Scots-Irish Presbyterians; 400,000 German or Dutch Reformed; Protestant French Huguenots and Episcopalians, who had a Calvinistic confession in their 39 Articles.

Through this mass immigration, the influence of John Calvin and John Knox was felt in America.

The first Presbyterian Church in America was founded by Rev. Francis Makemie in Maryland in 1684. By the time of the American REVOLUTION, the Presbyterian denomination was one of the four largest denominations in the country, along with Anglican, Congregational and Baptist.


A descendant of John Knox was Presbyterian minister John Witherspoon, who signed the Declaration of Independence and was a primary proponent of separation of powers.


John Witherspoon
circulated letters urging ministers to support independence, even publishing a sermon, “Address to the Natives of Scotland residing in America,” in which he beseeched those of Scots and Scots-Irish descent to insist on their ancient rights against Britain.

John Witherspoon served as the President of Princeton College, where he taught 9 of the 55 writers of the U.S. Constitution, including James Madison.


Leaders of the Presbyterian Churches in the United States wrote to President George Washington, May 26, 1789:
“We … esteem it a peculiar happiness to behold in our Chief Magistrate, a steady, avowed friend of the Christian religion … who, in his private conduct, adorns the doctrines of the gospel of Christ.”


President George Washington wrote back in May of 1789:

“Gentlemen: I receive with great sensibility the testimonial given by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America … While I reiterate the professions of my dependence upon Heaven as the source of all public and private blessings; I will observe that the general prevalence of piety, philanthropy, honesty, industry, and economy seems, in the ordinary course of human affairs, particularly necessary for advancing and conforming the happiness of our country …”

Washington added:

“While all men within our territories are protected in worshiping the Deity according to the dictates of their consciences; it is rationally to be expected from them in return, that they will be emulous of evincing the sanctity of their professions by the innocence of their lives and the beneficence of their actions; for no man who is profligate in his morals, or a bad member of the civil community, can possibly be a true Christian, or a credit to his own religious society …”

Washington concluded:
“I desire you to accept my acknowledgments for your laudable endeavors to render men sober, honest, and good citizens, and the obedient subjects of a lawful government,

as well as for your prayers to Almighty God for His blessings on our common country, and the humble instrument which He has been pleased to make use of in the administration of its government.”

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The Most Damaging Wikileaks (so far)

top-100-wikileaks

1. Obama lied: he knew about Hillary’s secret server and wrote to her using a pseudonym, cover-up happened (intent to destroy evidence)

  • I cannot state how huge this is, it’s a cover-up involving the President of the United States. There are a lot of emails implying this, but this email states it very clearly so anyone can understand.  The email proves obstruction of justice and shows how they lied to the FBI, and

    Continue reading →

Stock Market Crash “Our Country & World are involved in More than a Financial Crisis” – Hoover

October 29, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange crashed.
Panic ensued as Wall Street sold 16,410,030 shares in a single day.
Billions of dollars were lost and America plunged into the Great Depression.

An estimated 15 million Americans were unemployed and nearly half of all banks failed.

The Great Depression began with a rapid contraction of credit.
This occurred despite the existence of the Federal Reserve which was created with promises that it would prevent financial panics.


Democrat Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan had stated (Hearst’s Magazine, Nov 1923): “The Federal Reserve Bank that should have been the farmer’s greatest protection has become his greatest foe.”


The President at the start of the Great Depression was Herbert Hoover, who had only been in office 7 months.

Herbert Hoover had previously coordinated the feeding of millions who were starving in Europe and Russia after World War I.

When the Mississippi River flooded in 1927, Herbert Hoover orchestrated the relief of some 630,000 people who were affected, 200,000 of which were African American.


President Herbert Hoover led a drive to mobilize private relief agencies, October 18, 1931:
“Time and again the American people have demonstrated a spiritual quality of generosity…
This is the occasion when we must arouse that idealism, that spirit, from which there can be no failure in this primary obligation of every man to his neighbor…”

Hoover continued: “Our country and the world are today involved in more than a financial crisis…
This great complex, which we call American life, is builded and can alone survive upon the translation into individual action of that fundamental philosophy announced by the Savior nineteen centuries ago…
Our national suffering today is from failure to observe these primary yet inexorable laws of human relationship…
Modern society cannot survive with the defense of Cain, ‘Am I my brother’s keeper?'”


Miracles in American History – 32 Amazing Stories of Answered Prayer

Herbert Hoover told the National Drive Committee for Voluntary Relief Agencies, September 15, 1932: “Our tasks are definite…that we maintain the spiritual impulses in our people for generous giving…in the spirit that each is his brother’s keeper…
Many a family today is carrying a neighbor family over the trough of this depression not alone with material aid but with that encouragement which maintains courage and faith.”

President Herbert Hoover stated at the Gridiron Club, April 27, 1931: “If, by the grace of God, we have passed the worst of this storm, the future months will be easy.
If we shall be called upon to endure more of this period, we must gird ourselves for even greater effort.
If we can maintain this courage and resolution we shall have written this new chapter in national life in terms to which our whole idealism has aspired.
May God grant to us the spirit and strength to carry through to the end.”

Herbert Hoover stated at Valley Forge, May 30, 1931: “If those few thousand men endured that long winter of privation… held their countrymen to the faith, and by that holding held fast the freedom of America, what right have we to be of little faith?”

Numerous economists hold the opinion that Herbert Hoover’s efforts would have eventually resulted in recovery had it not been for resistance from political opponents who favored big government intervention.

The Great Depression spread to countries around the globe, including:

Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Latin America, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Sweden, and Thailand.


President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated in his First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933: “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself…
We face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things…
Where there is no vision the people perish (Pr. 29:18)… We face arduous days that lie before us…with…old and precious moral values…
In this dedication of a nation we humbly ask the blessing of God. May He protect each and every one of us!”


The severity of the crisis caused citizens to demand the government respond, resulting in President Roosevelt issuing dozens of unprecedented Executive Orders creating large numbers of new Federal agencies.


During this time, enormous power was consolidated in Washington, D.C., usurping control over vast areas of American life.

Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6102 authorizing the Federal Government to confiscated all the gold in the country, making it a crime for a private citizen to own gold. 


In his Christmas Message, December 24, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt stated: “This year marks a greater national understanding of the significance in our modern lives of the teachings of Him whose birth we celebrate.

To more and more of us the words ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself’ have taken on a meaning that is showing itself and proving itself in our purposes and daily lives.
May the practice of that high ideal grow in us all in the year to come.
I give you and send you one and all, old and young, a Merry Christmas and a truly Happy New Year.

And so, for now and for always ‘God Bless Us Every One.'”

President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated on the 400th Anniversary of the Printing of the English Bible, October 6, 1935: “We cannot read the history of our rise and development as a Nation, without reckoning with the place the Bible has occupied in shaping the advances of the Republic.
Its teaching, as has been wisely suggested, is ploughed into the very heart of the race.
Where we have been truest and most consistent in obeying its precepts we have attained the greatest measure of contentment and prosperity.”

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Prayers and Presidents-Inspiring Faith from Leaders of the Past

Bill Federer www.AmericanMinute.com

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