ISLAM to DARK AGES to AGE OF DISCOVERY to RENAISSANCE to REFORMATION to RELIGIOUS WARS to REVOLUTION
ISLAM to DARK AGES
to AGE OF DISCOVERY
to RELIGIOUS WARS
to REVOLUTIONIn 12 years after Mohammed’s death, 632-644 AD, Muslim jihadists conquered the Eastern Roman Empire, Syria, Palestine, Eastern Anatolia, Armenia, Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt and North Africa.
Muslim pirates then terrorized the Mediterranean, blockading trade routes. This caused economic disaster in Roman Europe by diminishing products moving East to West.An important item no longer shipped was papyrus — reeds from the Nile delta which were used for paper in Europe.
The sudden shortage of paper contributed to a decline in literacy, fewer books being written, and Europe entering the DARK AGES.
Similar to present-day reports of ISIS destroying 100,000 ancient books in the Central Library of Mosul, Iraq, the 7th century account is related of Muslim warriors destroying Egypt’s ancient library in Alexandria — the largest and oldest library in the world.
The incident, according to Abd-Al-Latif of Baghdad (1162-1231), Jamal Ad-din Al-Kufti (1169-1248), and Bar Hebraeus (1226-1286), was that when Caliph Omar was asked what to do with Alexandria’s Library, he replied:
“If those books are in agreement with the Qur’an, we have no need of them; and if these are opposed to the Qur’an, destroy them.”
It supposedly took 6 months to burn them all.
Six hundred years later, Ottoman Muslims sacked Constantinople in 1453.
Graves were desecrated and the largest Christian Church in the world, the Hagia Sophia, was turned into a mosque.
The Ottoman conquest ended land trade routes from Europe to India and China.This led explorer Vasco de Gama to sail from Portugal around South Africa to India, 1497-1499, preceded five years earlier by Christopher Columbus attempting to sail west to India in 1492. Convinced he had reached India, Columbus named the people he met “Indians.”
This began a period of exploration known as the AGE OF DISCOVERY.
Ottoman Muslims invaded further into the Greece Byzantine Empire, destroying churches, schools, museums art, and graves.Greeks hurriedly fled with their treasures, art and literature to Florence, Italy.This flood of ancient culture into Western Europe sparked a re-discovery of Greek culture called the RENAISSANCE.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), considered one of the Fathers of the French Revolution, owned a dog he named “Sulan.” He wrote a Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, 1750 (translated by Ian Johnston), stating:
“Europe had fallen back into the barbarity … A revolution was necessary to bring men back to common sense, and it finally came from a quarter where one would least expect it. It was the stupid Muslim, the eternal blight on learning, who brought about its rebirth among us.
The collapse of the throne of Constantine carried into Italy the debris of ancient Greece. France, in its turn, was enriched by these precious remnants. The sciences soon followed letters. To the art of writing was joined the art of thinking.”
Condemning the rising materialism and sensualism in Florence was the religious preacher Savonarola, leading a notable Christian revival, inspiring crowds of thousands.
Political leaders succeeded in having him excommunicated, arrested, tortured and executed.
Greek scholars fleeing the Ottoman invasion also brought to Europe the Greek Bible, which was translated by Erasmus.
This interest in the original language of New Testament–Greek–contributed to the REFORMATION, begun by Martin Luther in 1517.
Over the next century, RELIGIOUS WARS resulted in tragic atrocities committed by both Protestant and Catholic armies against each other.
Henry II suppressed Protestant Huguenots in France.
After his death, Catherine de’ Medici was credited with the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris in 1572, after which Protestants fled France.
When King Francis II died at age 16, Mary-Queen of Scots, age 18, returned to Scotland in 1561.
John Knox had been arrested as a young man and sentenced in 1547 to be a galley slave on a French ship. Sailing away from Scotland, John Knox looked up as they passed St. Andrews and said:
“I see the steeple of that place where God first in public opened my mouth to glory; and I am fully persuaded… I shall not depart this life till my tongue shall glorify his godly name in the same place.”
John Knox escaped England to Geneva, Switzerland, where he met Reformer John Calvin.
Through Knox, John Calvin’s beliefs not only influenced Scotland, but also the millions of Scots, Scots-Irish, Puritan and Presbyterian immigrants who came to America.
“Ours is the only country deliberately founded on a good idea. That good idea combines a commitment to man’s inalienable rights with the Calvinist belief in an ultimate moral right and sinful man’s obligation to do good. These articles of faith, embodied in the Declaration of Independence and in the Constitution, literally govern our lives today.”
Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft published a ten-volume History of the United States, the first comprehensive history of America. He wrote: “He who will not honor the memory and respect the influence of Calvin knows little of the origin of American liberty.”
John Calvin advised the Jeanne d’Albret Queen Regnant of Navarre: “Now that the government is in your hands, God will test your zeal and fidelity. You now have an obligation to purge your lands of idolatry by taking into consideration the difficulties which can hold you back, the fears and doubts which can sap courage.
And I do not doubt that your advisors, if they look to this world, will try to stop you. I know the arguments advanced to prove that princes should not force their subjects to lead a Christian life, but all kingdoms which do not serve that of Jesus Christ are ruined. So judge for yourself. I do not say that all can be done in a day.”
John Calvin told the Queen Regnant of Navarre, April 28, 1545:
When John Knox returned to Scotland, he followed Calvin’s example of confronting monarchs.
John Knox, who died NOVEMBER 24, 1572, had stated:
“A man with God is always in the majority.”
Knox preached a sermon in St. Andrews which incited hearers to smash statues and loot Catholic churches.
Through the efforts of John Knox, the Scottish Parliament officially accepted the Reformation in 1560, beginning the Presbyterian Church.
Mary-Queen of Scots had unfortunate events in her personal life.
She had married Lord Darnley in 1565, but he became jealous of Mary’s private secretary, David Rizzio, and had him murdered.
Lord Darnley was then suspiciously killed two years later in an explosion.
The chief suspect in his murder was the Earl of Bothwell, who manipulated Mary into marrying him a month later.
This upheaval resulted in the Scottish Parliament forcing Mary to abdicate her throne. She was replaced by her and Lord Darnley’s infant son, James.
James, at the age of 13 months, was crowned King James VI of Scotland.John Knox gave the coronation sermon.The Earl of Bothwell tried to raise forces to return Mary-Queen of Scots to her throne, but he was captured in Norway and died in prison.
Henry VIII later beheaded Anne Boleyn.
Elizabeth was made aware of a plot against her life, which questionably implicated her captive Catholic cousin Mary-Queen of Scots.
Elizabeth tragically signed the order for Mary’s execution in 1587. Catholics in England went into hiding or fled. Large numbers of priests sent to England were captured and executed.
In 1588, Elizabeth had Sir Francis Drake fight the Spanish Armada.
The seriousness of Spain’s threat led Queen Elizabeth to make a treaty with Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur and with the Ottoman Sultan Murad III against Spain.
When Elizabeth died in 1603, the son of Mary-Queen of Scots was made King of England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland as King James I.
King James I had been raised by Scottish Presbyterian Protestant tutors.
Between 1717 and 1775, over 200,000 Scots-Irish migrated to America, becoming a third of the country’s population.
At the time of the REVOLUTION, the population of America was around 3 million, of which Puritans comprised about 600,000.
Other settlers included: 900,000 Scots and Scots-Irish Presbyterians; 400,000 German or Dutch Reformed; Protestant French Huguenots and Episcopalians, who had a Calvinistic confession in their 39 Articles.
Through this mass immigration, the influence of John Calvin and John Knox was felt in America.
The first Presbyterian Church in America was founded by Rev. Francis Makemie in Maryland in 1684. By the time of the American REVOLUTION, the Presbyterian denomination was one of the four largest denominations in the country, along with Anglican, Congregational and Baptist.
John Witherspoon served as the President of Princeton College, where he taught 9 of the 55 writers of the U.S. Constitution, including James Madison.
“Gentlemen: I receive with great sensibility the testimonial given by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America … While I reiterate the professions of my dependence upon Heaven as the source of all public and private blessings; I will observe that the general prevalence of piety, philanthropy, honesty, industry, and economy seems, in the ordinary course of human affairs, particularly necessary for advancing and conforming the happiness of our country …”
“While all men within our territories are protected in worshiping the Deity according to the dictates of their consciences; it is rationally to be expected from them in return, that they will be emulous of evincing the sanctity of their professions by the innocence of their lives and the beneficence of their actions; for no man who is profligate in his morals, or a bad member of the civil community, can possibly be a true Christian, or a credit to his own religious society …”