Monthly Archives: February, 2018

Research Paper: Turkey-ISIS Oil Trade


The sale of oil products by ISIS garners about $500 million/year. The US led multinational coalition has pledged to destroy ISIS. Its strategy includes depriving ISIS of financial support. Allegations abound that Turks are engaged in oil trade with ISIS. Additionally, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his family are allegedly implicated. Erdogan takes these charges seriously. He promised “to vacate his post of Turkey’s presidency if the claims are substantiated by concrete evidence.”

The Program on Peace-building and Rights at Columbia University’s Institute for the Study of Human Rights appointed a team of researchers in the United States, Europe, and Turkey to investigate the allegations. Researchers focus on secondary media sources. This research paper cites relevant reports.

Smugglers transport oil using a variety of means, generating significant revenues for ISIS. Smuggled oil finds its way into Turkey’s export facilities and onto tankers in Ceyhan bound for international markets. There is no “smoking gun” linking the Government of Turkey or Erdogan directly to ISIS oil sales. It is apparent, however, that Turkey turned a blind eye to ISIS oil trade. Turkey failed to seal its border, facilitating ISIS oil exports. Turks have profited at stages of the supply chain.

Transport Trends

Article: “ISIS Export Gateway to Global Crude Oil Markets
Publication: London Shipping Law Centre, Maritime Business Forum
Date: March 12, 2015

George Kiourktsoglou (Visiting Lecturer, University of Greenwich, London) and Dr. Alec D. Coutroubis (Principal Lecturer, University of Greenwich, London) provide the most extensive account of the ISIS oil industry and potential links to Turkey. ISIS began taking over oil fields in late spring 2014. Since then, ISIS has expanded its operations by creating a loosely integrated and thriving underground economy, consisting of approximately sixty percent of Syria’s oil assets and seven oil producing facilities in Iraq.

ISIS has set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighboring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and in kind. Upon extraction, oil is first lightly refined on site and then a supply-chain network brings it to the market. The supply chain comprises the following localities in Turkey: Sanliura, Urfa, Hakkari, Siirt, Batman, Osmaniya, Gaziantep, Sirnak, Adana, Kahramarmaras, Adiyaman and Mardin. The string of trading hubs ends up in Adana, home to the major tanker shipping port of Ceyhan on the Eastern Mediterranean. The terminal is operated by Botas International Limited (BIL), a Turkish state company.

The authors examine tanker charter rates, in order to establish transport patterns. They look at the map for crude oil loading terminals that geographically fall within, or border the sphere of ISIS control, over a period of years. They consider deviations in the patters from July 2014, when ISIS started off its smuggling operations, until mid-February 2015. They also consider the integration of ISIS smuggled crude within the global oil markets. A part of ISIS smuggled crude oil is fed into the global oil markets, transported in tankers leaving the port of Ceyhan.

Whenever the Islamic State is fighting in the vicinity of an area hosting oil assets, the exports from Ceyhan promptly spike. Unusual spikes are found from July 10-21, 2014. This spike coincides with the fall of Syria’s largest oil field, Al-Omar, to ISIS. Another spike takes place between the end of October and the end of November 2014. It happens at the same time as fighting between ISIS and the Syrian army over the control of the Jhar and Mahr gas fields, as well as the Hayyan gas company in the east of Homs province.

The authors believe that there is active shadow network of crude oil smugglers and traders, who channel ISIS crude to southeast Turkey from northeast Syria and northwest Iraq. The illicit supply chain along Route E90 delivers ISIS crude to Ceyhan.

Smuggler Citings

Article: “Despite U.S.-led campaign, ISIS Rakes in Oil Revenue
Publication: Associated Press
Date: October 23, 2015

The Islamic State takes in up to $50 million a month from selling crude from oilfields under its control in Iraq and Syria. Washington has been talking to regional governments, including Turkey, about its concerns over the export of energy infrastructure into ISIS-controlled territory in Syria (e.g. equipment for extraction, refinement, transport and energy production). ISIS management of its oil fields is “increasingly sophisticated,” with assistance from international actors in the region. According to Iraqi intelligence officials, ISIS sells the crude to smugglers who in turn sell to middlemen in Turkey. ISIS is believed to be extracting about 30,000 barrels per day from Syria, smuggled to middlemen in neighboring Turkey. This amount is augmented by up 20,000 barrels per day, mostly from two oilfields outside Mosul. The ISIS “finance ministry” puts at 253 the number of oil wells under ISIS control in Syria. Of these, 161 of them were operational, benefitting from production equipment originating in neighboring countries including Turkey.

Article: “IŞİD petrolü üç güzergahtan Türkiye’ye gidiyor
Publication: Cumhuriyet
Date: December 2, 2015

ISIS oil is transported to Turkey via multiple routes. Oil from the Raqqa region is transported via the northwest route. A satellite image of the motorway at Azzaz Shows 240 trucks waiting on the Turkish side of border, and 46 trucks on Syrian side of border (13-11-2015). Trucks travel to Dortyol and Iskenderun Port. Satellite images of Deir Ez-Zor show hundreds of tankers carrying oil to towards Qamishli (18-10-2015). After entering Turkey, oil is sent to the “Tupras” refinery in Batman, about 100 kilometers away. Oil is also transported from Syria to Cizre. A satellite image shows 1,104 trucks (14-11-2015).

Article: “Inside Isis Inc: The journey of a barrel of oil
Publication: Financial Times
Date: October 14, 2015

Smugglers load larger jerry cans (50-60 litres) of oil into metal tubs or small row boats to move cargo across the river and into Turkey. On the other bank, tractors pick up the supply and took it to a local market. Some Syrian and Turkish border towns (e.g. Besalan) have co-operated by burying small rubber tubes under the border. A popular crossing point for smugglers carrying jerry cans of fuel on their backs has been from Kharbet al-Jawz in rebel-held Syria to Guvecci in Turkey.

Article: “Islamic State Financing and US Policy Approaches
Publication: Congressional Research Service
Date: April 10, 2015

ISIS has no traditional export facilities or access to the open market. As a result, ISIS transports oil by truck to the Turkish border where oil brokers and traders purchase the oil with cash at a steeply discounted price, as low as $18/barrel. Oil sales initially provided the majority of ISIS revenue, but gradually declined due to an extensive campaign of US-led air strikes. The US and Turkey co-chair the Financial Action Task Force, which has studied ISIS revenue streams and recommended measures to prevent cash flow.

Article: “Turkey sends in jets as Syria’s agony spills over every border
Publication: The Guardian
Date: July 25, 2015

The oil-smuggling operation of Abu Sayyaf, an ISIS leader, has been drastically reduced, although tankers still make it to the Syria-Turkey border. According to an ISIS member, “I know of a lot of cooperation… I don’t see how Turkey can attack the organisation too hard. There are shared interests.”

Article: “Raqqa’s Rockefellers: How Islamic State oil flows to Israel
Publication: Al-Araby al-Jadeed
Date: November 26, 2015

ISIS oil exports are managed by a colonel in the Iraqi Intelligence Services. He indicated, “After the oil is extracted and loaded, the oil tankers leave Nineveh province and head north to the city of Zakho, 88 kilometers north of Mosul. After IS oil lorries arrive in Zakho – normally 70 to 100 of them at a time – they are met by oil smuggling mafias. The person in charge of the oil shipment sells the oil to the highest bidder. Once in Turkey, the lorries continue to the town of Silopi, where the oil is delivered to a person who goes by the aliases of Dr Farid, Hajji Farid and Uncle Farid.”

Article: “ISIS Oil Trade Full Frontal: “Raqqa’s Rockefellers”, Bilal Erdogan, KRG Crude, And The Israel Connection”
Publication: Zero Hedge
Date: November 29, 2015

Vladimir Putin detailed the scope of the operation in meetings with his G20 colleagues. “I’ve shown photos taken from space and from aircraft which clearly demonstrate the scale of the illegal trade in oil and petroleum products,” he told journalists on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Antalya. The very same day, the US destroyed some 116 ISIS oil trucks, an effort that was widely publicized in the Western media. In the two weeks since Russia’s revelations, Moscow and Washington have destroyed 1,300 ISIS oil transport vehicles.

Article: “Mevzuattan çıktı… Erdoğan zorda! İşte IŞİD petrolüne belge”
Publication: Gazeteciler
Date: December 4, 2015

Turkey amended its transport, trade and custom policy in June 2014. Regulations govern the “transiting of raw Petrol and Fuel via Turkey by road or railways.” (Approved by Ministry of Trade and Customs on June 24, 2014, item no. 1208098). The Reyhanli border gate is not officially used for trade of oil products. However, the Russian Ministry of Defense provided satellite imagery of oil tankers crossing at Reyhanli.

Article: “Iran: Elimizde IŞİD’den Türkiye’ye petrol sevkiyatının kanıtları var”
Publication: Rota Haber
Date: December 4, 2015

Iran says it has proof of oil smuggling from ISIS to Turkey. Iran’s Secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council, Mohsen Rezaei, says the government has photographs of truck tankers bringing ISIS oil to Turkey. Rezaei is quoted, “If Turkish government does not have information of the oil trade in the country, we are willing to give it to them.”

Article: “German deputy speaker: NATO must stop Turkey support for ISIS”
Publication: Rudaw
Date: October 12, 2014

According to Claudia Roth, deputy speaker of the Bundestag and a Green Party MP, Erdogan’s “dealings with the ISIS are unacceptable. Also that the ISIS has been able to sell its oil via Turkey is extraordinary.”

Article: “Turkey Launches Crackdown On Oil Smugglers Feeding ISIS”
Publication: Huffington Post
Date: June 12, 2014

Smuggled fuel came from oil wells in Iraq or Syria controlled by militants, including ISIS, and was sold to middlemen who smuggled it across the 900-kilometer Turkish-Syrian border. Analysts estimate that the Islamic State group gets up to $3 million a day in revenue from oil fields seized in Iraq and Syria. Western intelligence officials have alleged that Turkey is turning a blind eye to a flourishing trade that strengthens ISIS, and Secretary of State John Kerry has called on Turkey to do more to stem the trade. Oil smuggling was a booming business until about six months ago, when Turkish authorities cracked down in response to media reports. New checkpoints and border controls were set-up in Hatay Province. Turkey says it seized nearly 20 million liters of oil at the border in the first eight months of 2015, about four times as much as in the same period the year before.

Article: “How ISIS Uses Oil to Fund Terror”
Publication: Huffington Post
Date: September 19, 2014

There are about 8 million people living in ISIS-controlled territory who desperately need fuel and energy supplies. ISIS crude oil is either refined in small facilities or exchanged across the border — mostly in Turkey — for refined oil products. The southern corridor of Turkey has thus become a gateway for oil products and illicit trading. Cross-border trade violates U.N. Security Council resolution 2170 requiring Members States cut the finances of ISIS, Nusra front and other Qaeda splinter groups.

Allegations of Turkey’s Official Involvement

Article: “CHP’li Altiok ve HDP’li Kürkçü ISID’ten petrol alimini 4 ay önce meclise taşimişti”
Publication: Siyasi Haber
Date: December 3, 2015

CHP İzmir MP Zeynep Altıok HDP İzmir MP Ertuğrul Kürkçü accused Turkey of oil trade with ISIS in the Turkish Grand National Assembly (27-7-2015 and 27-7-2015). They referenced Martin Chulov’s article in The Guardian (26-7-2015). Chulov maintains that when Abu Sayyaf was in charge of energy trade for ISIS before he was killed in an air strike on May 15. US Special Forces recovered Sayyaf’s computer records confirming that Turkey was the main buyer of oil from ISIS. Chulov is referenced in Birgun newspaper saying that Turkish security forces were protecting the oil trade (28-7-2015).

Article: “Aykut Erdoğdu yolsuzluk bağlantılarını belgeleriyle anlattı”
Publication: Çağdaş Ses
Date: October 21, 2015

CHP MP Aykut Erdoğdu alleged that partner companies of Berat Albayrak, Erdogan’s son-in-law, and his brother-in-law, Ziya Ilgen, were involved in the ISIS oil trade (17-12-2014). A court case has been brought against him for “insulting the President.”

Article: “Opposition MP says ISIS is selling oil in Turkey”
Publication: Al-Monitor
Date: June 13, 2014

Ali Ediboglu, an opposition MP, said: “$800 million worth of oil that ISIS obtained from regions it occupied this year (the Rumeilan oil fields in northern Syria and most recently Mosul) is being sold in Turkey. They have laid pipes from villages near the Turkish border at Hatay. Similar pipes exist also at the Turkish border regions of Kilis, Urfa and Gaziantep. They transfer the oil to Turkey and sell it at a discount for cash. They refine the oil in areas close to the Turkish border and then sell it via Turkey. This is worth $800 million.”

Article: “As Turkey turned blind eye, ISIS took advantage”
Publication: CBS News
Date: September 4, 2014

Hursit Gunes, a member of Turkey’s opposition, accuses the Turkish authorities of ignoring oil smuggling by ISIS. “The money they get from smuggling could be stopped if the Turkish government and the neighbor countries had decided that they shouldn’t get a coin.”

Article: “Ankara’s oil business with ISIS”
Publication: RT
Date: November 27, 2015

Last October, the US Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David Cohen said Islamic State was earning $1 million a day from oil sales. “According to our information, as of last month, ISIL was selling oil at substantially discounted prices to a variety of middlemen, including some from Turkey, who then transported the oil to be resold. It also appears that some of the oil emanating from territory where ISIL operates has been sold to Kurds in Iraq, and then resold into Turkey.”

Article: “Suspicious Report: “ISIS Selling Oil to Turkey through Qatari Brokers”
Publication: Veterans Today
Date: December 4, 2015

the Arabic-language Al-Akhbar newspaper quoted unnamed sources inside ISIL: “ISIL regularly sells crude it obtains from Iraqi and Syrian oil wells to Turkey through some Qatari middlemen”. In some transactions, oil is bartered for weapons.

Article: “Struggling to Starve ISIS of Oil Revenue, U.S. Seeks Assistance From Turkey”
Publication: The New York Times
Date: September 13, 2014

On September 13, 2014, The New York Times reported the Obama administration’s efforts to pressure Turkey to crack down on ISIS sales of oil. James Phillips, a senior fellow at the Heritage Foundation, maintained that Turkey has not fully cracked down on ISIS’s sales network because it benefits from a lower price for oil, and that there might even be Turks and government officials who benefit from the trade.

Article: “Sınırsız sınır…”
Publication: Radikal
Date: September 13, 2014

Fehim Taştekin wrote in Radikal on September 13, 2014 about illegal pipelines transporting oil from Syria to nearby border towns in Turkey. The oil is sold for as little as 1.25 liras per liter. According to Taştekin, many of these illegal pipelines were dismantled after operating for 3 years, once his article was published.

Article: “ABD Hazine Bakanlığı: IŞİD’in petrol satışına Türkler de aracılık ediyor”
Publication: Diken
Date: October 24, 2015

According to Diken, David Cohen, a Justice Department official, says that Turkish individuals act as middlemen to help sell ISIS oil through Turkey.

Article: “Is Turkey Really Benefitting from Oil Trade with ISIS”
Publication: TIME
Date: December 2, 2015

Analysts say it’s very unlikely Ankara has anything to do with ISIS oil. “To go as far to say that Turkey would shoot down a plane to protect its oil supply is unfounded,” says Valerie Marcel of Chatham House. Fawaz Gerges, Professor of International Relations in the London School of Economics and Political Science, agrees that the claims amount to a conspiracy theory. “I think it would be very misleading to say there is an unholy alliance with Turkey and the Islamic State,” he says. According to TIME, “That’s not to say ISIS oil isn’t being imported to Turkey. Getrges adds, “ISIS sells to anyone, it’s not about ideology.”

Article: “Syria conflict: Russia accuses Erdogan of trading oil with IS”
Publication: BBC News
Date: December 2, 2015

Russia’s Defense Ministry accused President Erdogan’s family members of being involved in the trade of petroleum with ISIS. Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov said Turkey was the biggest buyer of “stolen” oil from Syria and Iraq. Antonov presented satellite images showing oil tankers travelling from IS-held territory to Turkey. The trucks, travelled to three locations, including refineries, in Turkey. Some oil was sent to a third country. Antonov indicated, “According to available information, the highest level of the political leadership of the country, President Erdogan and his family, are involved in this criminal business.”

Article: “Erdogan’s son-in-law ‘linked to Isis oil trade’”
Publication: The Times
Date: December 5, 2015

An opposition MP claimed this week “that there is a very high probability” that Berat Albayrak, Turkey’s energy minister and Erdogan’s son-in-law, was linked to the supply of oil by the terrorists.

Article: “Russia accuses Turkish President Erdogan’s son-in-law of being ‘linked to Isis oil trade’”
Publication: The Independent
Date: December 5, 2015

Berat Albayrak was chief executive of Calik Holding, a pro-government conglomerate with an interest in energy and oil, until 2013. Albayrak also managed Powertrans, a company that trucks oil from Iraqi Kurdistan. Albayrak was targeted as part of a thwarted corruption investigation in December 2013, on allegations of tender-rigging and bribery. He was elected as AKP deputy in June 2015, and then appointed energy minister.

Article: “Putin ve Erdoğan arasında ‘IŞİD petrolü’ atışması”
Publication: Hürriyet
Date: November 26, 2015

Berat Albayrak, Erdogan’s son-in-law, was appointed Minister of Energy and Natural Resources in November 2015. Erdogan’s son, Bilal, has a marine transport company – BMZ group. This company also owns a Maltese shipping company involved in oil transport. Erdogan denies involvement by members of his family. He maintains that the Assad regime and “supporters of that regime” are the buyers of ISIS oil.

Article: “Meet The Man Who Funds ISIS: Bilal Erdogan, The Son Of Turkey’s President”
Publication: Zero Hedge
Date: November 26, 2015

Gürsel Tekin, CHP vice-president, said: “President Erdogan claims that according to international transportation conventions there is no legal infraction concerning Bilal’s illicit activities and his son is doing an ordinary business with the registered Japanese companies, but in fact Bilal Erdogan is up to his neck in complicity with terrorism. As long as his father holds office he will be immune from any judicial prosecution.” Tekin adds that Bilal’s maritime company doing the oil trades for ISIS, BMZ Ltd, is “a family business and president Erdogan’s close relatives hold shares in BMZ and they misused public funds and took illicit loans from Turkish banks.”

Article: “IŞİD petrolünü Bilal Erdoğan’ın şirketi satıyor
Publication: Sol Haber
Date: December 2, 2015

Finian Cunningham, who worked for British and Irish press (The Mirror, Independent, Irish Times) alleges that Bilal Erdogan who controls BMZ group is implicated in the oil trade. He says that oil comes from Deir Ez-Zor to Batman in Turkey and then transported to Iskenderun Port where it is loaded onto BMZ group-owned tankers for export to world markets.

Article: “Bilal Erdoğan’s firm purchases two new tankers at cost of $36 million
Publication: Today’s Zaman
Date: December 15, 2015

The BMZ Group, a company owned by President Erdoğan’s son, Bilal, purchased two tankers in the last two months at a total cost of $36 million. According to the Deniz Haber news agency, the two tankers bought by the BMZ Group, named Türkter 82 and Armada Fair, will be registered in October.

Article: “Are These The Tankers Bilal Erdogan Uses To Transport ISIS Oil?
Publication: Zero Hedge
Date: November 30, 2015

Syrian Information Minister Omran al-Zoubi said, “All of the oil was delivered to a company that belongs to the son of Erdogan. This is why Turkey became anxious when Russia began delivering airstrikes against the IS infrastructure and destroyed more than 500 trucks with oil already. This really got on Erdogan and his company’s nerves. They’re importing not only oil, but wheat and historic artefacts as well.”

Article: “İtalya savcılığına Bilal Erdoğan şikayeti
Publication: Rota Haber
Date: December 4, 2015

Bilal Erdogan allegedly took $1 billion to Italy in October, 2015. Lawyer Massimiliano Annetta filed a petition with the Bologna prosecutor’s office about alleged money laundering by Bilal Erdogan, requesting an investigation into the money he brought into Italy.

US Views

Article: “Kurdish former MP faces court case over ISIS funding claim
Publication: Rudaw
Date: October 27, 2014

US Treasury Undersecretary David Cohen said, “Last month, ISIL was selling oil at substantially discounted prices to a variety of middlemen, including some from Turkey. It also appears that some of the oil emanating from territory where ISIL operates has been sold to Kurds in Iraq, and then resold into Turkey.”

Article: “ISIS oil smuggling to Turkey insignificant: US official
Publication: The Daily Star
Date: December 4, 2015

The State Department has dismissed Moscow’s charge that Erdogan and his family are involved with ISIS oil trade. According to Amos Hochstein, U.S. special envoy and coordinator for international energy affairs, “The amount of oil being smuggled is extremely low and has decreased over time and is of no significance from a volume perspective – both volume of oil and volume of revenue.”

Article: “Russia says it has proof Turkey involved in Daesh oil trade
Publication: The Daily Star
Date: December 3, 2015

White House spokesman Josh Earnest said, “The irony of the Russians raising this concern is that there’s plenty of evidence to indicate that the largest consumer of ISIL oil is actually Bashar Assad and his regime, a regime that only remains in place because it is being propped up by the Russians.”

Mr. Phillips is Director of the Program on Peace-building and Rights at Columbia University’s Institute for the Study of Human Rights. He served as a senior adviser to the State Department under President Obama. He was also a senior adviser and foreign affairs expert to the State Department under Presidents Clinton and Bush. Phillips is author of Losing Iraq: Inside the Post-War Reconstruction Fiasco. His most recent book is The Kurdish Spring: A New Map for the Middle East.

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For Those Who Don’t ‘Believe’ In ‘Conspiracies’ Here Are 58 Admitted False Flag Attacks

“False flag terrorism” occurs when elements within a government stage a secret operation whereby government forces pretend to be a targeted enemy while attacking their own forces or people. The attack is then falsely blamed on the enemy in order to justify going to war against that enemy.

Yes, it’s true: There really are conspiracies. As the popular TV show “The X-Files” notes, all you have to do is look because “the truth is out there.”

But unfortunately many in our society have been conditioned by the old media and politicos not to take any mention of conspiracies seriously, and this despite the fact that conspiracies have been real and have occurred much more frequently than many people realize.

In fact, one websiteWashington’s Blog – has documented 58 of them in recent days, and many are quite shocking:

In the following instances, officials in the government which carried out the attack (or seriously proposed an attack) admit to it, either orally, in writing, or through photographs or videos:

(1) Japanese troops set off a small explosion on a train track in 1931, and falsely blamed it on China in order to justify an invasion of Manchuria. This is known as the “Mukden Incident” or the “Manchurian Incident”. The Tokyo International Military Tribunal found: “Several of the participators in the plan, including Hashimoto [a high-ranking Japanese army officer], have on various occasions admitted their part in the plot and have stated that the object of the ‘Incident’ was to afford an excuse for the occupation of Manchuria by the Kwantung Army ….” And see this.

(2) A major with the Nazi SS admitted at the Nuremberg trials that – under orders from the chief of the Gestapo – he and some other Nazi operatives faked attacks on their own people and resources which they blamed on the Poles, to justify the invasion of Poland.

(3) Nazi general Franz Halder also testified at the Nuremberg trials that Nazi leader Hermann Goering admitted to setting fire to the German parliament building in 1933, and then falsely blaming the communists for the arson.

(4) Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev admitted in writing that the Soviet Union’s Red Army shelled the Russian village of Mainila in 1939 – while blaming the attack on Finland – as a basis for launching the “Winter War” against Finland. Russian president Boris Yeltsin agreed that Russia had been the aggressor in the Winter War.

(5) The Russian Parliament, current Russian president Putin and former Soviet leader Gorbachev all admit that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered his secret police to execute 22,000 Polish army officers and civilians in 1940, and then falsely blamed it on the Nazis.

(6) The British government admits that – between 1946 and 1948 – it bombed 5 ships carrying Jews attempting to flee the Holocaust to seek safety in Palestine, set up a fake group called “Defenders of Arab Palestine”, and then had the psuedo-group falsely claim responsibility for the bombings (and see this, this and this).

(7) Israel admits that in 1954, an Israeli terrorist cell operating in Egypt planted bombs in several buildings, including U.S. diplomatic facilities, then left behind “evidence” implicating the Arabs as the culprits (one of the bombs detonated prematurely, allowing the Egyptians to identify the bombers, and several of the Israelis later confessed) (and see this and this).

(8) The CIA admits that it hired Iranians in the 1950′s to pose as Communists and stage bombings in Iran in order to turn the country against its democratically-elected prime minister.

(9) The Turkish Prime Minister admitted that the Turkish government carried out the 1955 bombing on a Turkish consulate in Greece – also damaging the nearby birthplace of the founder of modern Turkey – and blamed it on Greece, for the purpose of inciting and justifying anti-Greek violence.

(10) The British Prime Minister admitted to his defense secretary that he and American president Dwight Eisenhower approved a plan in 1957 to carry out attacks in Syria and blame it on the Syrian government as a way to effect regime change.

(11) The former Italian Prime Minister, an Italian judge, and the former head of Italian counterintelligence admit that NATO, with the help of the Pentagon and CIA, carried out terror bombings in Italy and other European countries in the 1950s through the 1980s and blamed the communists, in order to rally people’s support for their governments in Europe in their fight against communism.

As one participant in this formerly-secret program stated: “You had to attack civilians, people, women, children, innocent people, unknown people far removed from any political game. The reason was quite simple. They were supposed to force these people, the Italian public, to turn to the state to ask for greater security”so that “a state of emergency could be declared, so people would willingly trade part of their freedom for the security” (and see this) (Italy and other European countries subject to the terror campaign had joined NATO before the bombings occurred). And watch this BBC special. They also allegedly carried out terror attacks in France, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the UK, and other countries.

False flag attacks carried out pursuant to this program include – by way of example only:

(12) In 1960, American Senator George Smathers suggested that the U.S. launch “a false attack made on Guantanamo Bay which would give us the excuse of actually fomenting a fight which would then give us the excuse to go in and [overthrow Castro]“.

(13) Official State Department documents show that, in 1961, the head of the Joint Chiefs and other high-level officials discussed blowing up a consulate in the Dominican Republic in order to justify an invasion of that country. The plans were not carried out, but they were all discussed as serious proposals.

(14) As admitted by the U.S. government, recently declassified documents show that in 1962, the American Joint Chiefs of Staff signed off on a plan to blow up AMERICAN airplanes (using an elaborate plan involving the switching of airplanes), and also to commit terrorist acts on American soil, and then to blame it on the Cubans in order to justify an invasion of Cuba. See the following ABC news report; the official documents; and watch this interview with the former Washington Investigative Producer for ABC’s World News Tonight with Peter Jennings.

(15) In 1963, the U.S. Department of Defense wrote a paper promoting attacks on nations within the Organization of American States – such as Trinidad-Tobago or Jamaica – and then falsely blaming them on Cuba.

(16) The U.S. Department of Defense even suggested covertly paying a person in the Castro government to attack the United States: “The only area remaining for consideration then would be to bribe one of Castro’s subordinate commanders to initiate an attack on Guantanamo.”

(17) The NSA admits that it lied about what really happened in the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1964 … manipulating data to make it look like North Vietnamese boats fired on a U.S. ship so as to create a false justification for the Vietnam war.

(18) A U.S. Congressional committee admitted that – as part of its “Cointelpro” campaign – the FBI had used many provocateurs in the 1950s through 1970s to carry out violent acts and falsely blame them on political activists.

(19) A top Turkish general admitted that Turkish forces burned down a mosque on Cyprus in the 1970s and blamed it on their enemy. He explained: “In Special War, certain acts of sabotage are staged and blamed on the enemy to increase public resistance. We did this on Cyprus; we even burnt down a mosque.” In response to the surprised correspondent’s incredulous look the general said, “I am giving an example”.

(20) A declassified 1973 CIA document reveals a program to train foreign police and troops on how to make booby traps, pretending that they were training them on how to investigate terrorist acts:

The Agency maintains liaison in varying degrees with foreign police/security organizations through its field stations ….

[CIA provides training sessions as follows:]

a. Providing trainees with basic knowledge in the uses of commercial and military demolitions and incendiaries as they may be applied in terrorism and industrial sabotage operations.

b. Introducing the trainees to commercially available materials and home laboratory techniques, likely to he used in the manufacture of explosives and incendiaries by terrorists or saboteurs.

c. Familiarizing the trainees with the concept of target analysis and operational planning that a saboteur or terrorist must employ.

d. Introducing the trainees to booby trapping devices and techniques giving practical experience with both manufactured and improvised devices through actual fabrication.


The program provides the trainees with ample opportunity to develop basic familiarity and use proficiently through handling, preparing and applying the various explosive charges, incendiary agents, terrorist devices and sabotage techniques.

(21) The German government admitted (and see this) that, in 1978, the German secret service detonated a bomb in the outer wall of a prison and planted “escape tools” on a prisoner – a member of the Red Army Faction – which the secret service wished to frame the bombing on.

(22) A Mossad agent admits that, in 1984, Mossad planted a radio transmitter in Gaddaffi’s compound in Tripoli, Libya which broadcast fake terrorist trasmissions recorded by Mossad, in order to frame Gaddaffi as a terrorist supporter. Ronald Reagan bombed Libya immediately thereafter.

(23) The South African Truth and Reconciliation Council found that, in 1989, the Civil Cooperation Bureau (a covert branch of the South African Defense Force) approached an explosives expert and asked him “to participate in an operation aimed at discrediting the ANC [the African National Congress] by bombing the police vehicle of the investigating officer into the murder incident”, thus framing the ANC for the bombing.

(24) An Algerian diplomat and several officers in the Algerian army admit that, in the 1990s, the Algerian army frequently massacred Algerian civilians and then blamed Islamic militants for the killings (and see this video; and Agence France-Presse, 9/27/2002, French Court Dismisses Algerian Defamation Suit Against Author).

(25) In 1993, a bomb in Northern Ireland killed 9 civilians. Official documents from the Royal Ulster Constabulary (i.e. the British government) show that the mastermind of the bombing was a British agent, and that the bombing was designed to inflame sectarian tensions. And see this.

(26) The United States Army’s 1994 publication Special Forces Foreign Internal Defense Tactics Techniques and Procedures for Special Forces – updated in 2004 – recommends employing terrorists and using false flag operations to destabilize leftist regimes in Latin America. False flag terrorist attacks were carried out in Latin America and other regions as part of the CIA’s “Dirty Wars“. And see this.

(27) Similarly, a CIA “psychological operations” manual prepared by a CIA contractor for the Nicaraguan Contra rebels noted the value of assassinating someone on your own side to create a “martyr” for the cause. The manual was authenticated by the U.S. government. The manual received so much publicity from Associated Press, Washington Post and other news coverage that – during the 1984 presidential debate – President Reagan was confronted with the following question on national television:

At this moment, we are confronted with the extraordinary story of a CIA guerrilla manual for the anti-Sandinista contras whom we are backing, which advocates not only assassinations of Sandinistas but the hiring of criminals to assassinate the guerrillas we are supporting in order to create martyrs.

(28) An Indonesian fact-finding team investigated violent riots which occurred in 1998, and determined that “elements of the military had been involved in the riots, some of which were deliberately provoked”.

(29) Senior Russian Senior military and intelligence officers admit that the KGB blew up Russian apartment buildings in 1999 and falsely blamed it on Chechens, in order to justify an invasion of Chechnya (and see this report and this discussion).

(30) As reported by BBC, the New York Times, and Associated Press, Macedonian officials admit that the government murdered 7 innocent immigrants in cold blood and pretended that they were Al Qaeda soldiers attempting to assassinate Macedonian police, in order to join the “war on terror”.

(31) At the July 2001 G8 Summit in Genoa, Italy, black-clad thugs were videotaped getting out of police cars, and were seen by an Italian MP carrying “iron bars inside the police station”. Subsequently, senior police officials in Genoa subsequently admitted that police planted two Molotov cocktails and faked the stabbing of a police officer at the G8 Summit, in order to justify a violent crackdown against protesters.

(32) The U.S. falsely blamed Iraq for playing a role in the 9/11 attacks – as shown by a memo from the defense secretary – as one of the main justifications for launching the Iraq war. Even after the 9/11 Commission admitted that there was no connection, Dick Cheney said that the evidence is “overwhelming” that al Qaeda had a relationship with Saddam Hussein’s regime, that Cheney “probably” had information unavailable to the Commission, and that the media was not ‘doing their homework’ in reporting such ties. Top U.S. government officials now admit that the Iraq war was really launched for oil … not 9/11 or weapons of mass destruction. Despite previous “lone wolf” claims, many U.S. government officials now say that 9/11 was state-sponsored terror; but Iraq was not the state which backed the hijackers. (Many U.S. officials have alleged that 9/11 was a false flag operation by rogue elements of the U.S. government; but such a claim is beyond the scope of this discussion. The key point is that the U.S. falsely blamed it on Iraq, when it knew Iraq had nothing to do with it.).

(33) Although the FBI now admits that the 2001 anthrax attacks were carried out by one or more U.S. government scientists, a senior FBI official says that the FBI was actually told to blame the Anthrax attacks on Al Qaeda by White House officials (remember what the anthrax letters looked like). Government officials also confirm that the white House tried to link the anthrax to Iraq as a justification for regime change in that country.

(34) 2 months after 9/11, high-level government officials in Macedonia decided to “justify” their entry into the “war on terror” by catching and killing “terrorists”.  According to the New York Times, Macedonian police investigators admit that the officials launched a plan which included “luring foreign migrants into the country, executing them in a staged gun battle, and then claiming they were a unit backed by Al Qaeda intent on attacking Western embassies”. The plan was carried out shortly afterwards, with seven immigrants killed in 2002. Photos of the dead immigrants, posed with planted evidence – “bags of uniforms and semiautomatic weapons at their side” – were released to Western diplomats.

(35) According to the Washington Post, Indonesian police admit that the Indonesian military killed American teachers in Papua in 2002 and blamed the murders on a Papuan separatist group in order to get that group listed as a terrorist organization.

(36) The well-respected former Indonesian president also admits that the government probably had a role in the Bali bombings.

(37) Police outside of a 2003 European Union summit in Greece were filmed planting Molotov cocktails on a peaceful protester.

(38) Former Department of Justice lawyer John Yoo suggested in 2005 that the US should go on the offensive against al-Qaeda, having “our intelligence agencies create a false terrorist organization. It could have its own websites, recruitment centers, training camps, and fundraising operations. It could launch fake terrorist operations and claim credit for real terrorist strikes, helping to sow confusion within al-Qaeda’s ranks, causing operatives to doubt others’ identities and to question the validity of communications.”

(39) Similarly, in 2005, Professor John Arquilla of the Naval Postgraduate School – a renowned US defense analyst credited with developing the concept of ‘netwar’ – called for western intelligence services to create new “pseudo gang” terrorist groups, as a way of undermining “real” terror networks. According to Pulitzer-Prize winning journalist Seymour Hersh, Arquilla’s ‘pseudo-gang’ strategy was, Hersh reported, already being implemented by the Pentagon:

“Under Rumsfeld’s new approach, I was told, US military operatives would be permitted to pose abroad as corrupt foreign businessmen seeking to buy contraband items that could be used in nuclear-weapons systems. In some cases, according to the Pentagon advisers, local citizens could be recruited and asked to join up with guerrillas or terrorists

The new rules will enable the Special Forces community to set up what it calls ‘action teams’ in the target countries overseas which can be used to find and eliminate terrorist organizations. ‘Do you remember the right-wing execution squads in El Salvador?’ the former high-level intelligence official asked me, referring to the military-led gangs that committed atrocities in the early nineteen-eighties. ‘We founded them and we financed them,’ he said. ‘The objective now is to recruit locals in any area we want. And we aren’t going to tell Congress about it.’ A former military officer, who has knowledge of the Pentagon’s commando capabilities, said, ‘We’re going to be riding with the bad boys.’”

(40) United Press International reported in June 2005:

U.S. intelligence officers are reporting that some of the insurgents in Iraq are using recent-model Beretta 92 pistols, but the pistols seem to have had their serial numbers erased. The numbers do not appear to have been physically removed; the pistols seem to have come off a production line without any serial numbers. Analysts suggest the lack of serial numbers indicates that the weapons were intended for intelligence operations or terrorist cells with substantial government backing. Analysts speculate that these guns are probably from either Mossad or the CIA. Analysts speculate that agent provocateurs may be using the untraceable weapons even as U.S. authorities use insurgent attacks against civilians as evidence of the illegitimacy of the resistance.

(41) Undercover Israeli soldiers admitted in 2005 to throwing stones at other Israeli soldiers so they could blame it on Palestinians, as an excuse to crack down on peaceful protests by the Palestinians.

(42) Quebec police admitted that, in 2007, thugs carrying rocks to a peaceful protest were actually undercover Quebec police officers (and see this).

(43) A 2008 US Army special operations field manual recommends that the U.S. military use surrogate non-state groups such as “paramilitary forces, individuals, businesses, foreign political organizations, resistant or insurgent organizations, expatriates, transnational terrorism adversaries, disillusioned transnational terrorism members, black marketers, and other social or political ‘undesirables.’” The manual specifically acknowledged that U.S. special operations can involve both counterterrorism and “Terrorism” (as well as “transnational criminal activities, including narco-trafficking, illicit arms-dealing, and illegal financial transactions.”)

(44) The former Italian Prime Minister, President, and head of Secret Services (Francesco Cossiga) advised the 2008 minister in charge of the police, on how to deal with protests from teachers and students:

He should do what I did when I was Minister of the Interior … infiltrate the movement with agents provocateurs inclined to do anything …. And after that, with the strength of the gained population consent, … beat them for blood and beat for blood also those teachers that incite them. Especially the teachers. Not the elderly, of course, but the girl teachers yes.

(45) At the G20 protests in London in 2009, a British member of parliament saw plain clothes police officers attempting to incite the crowd to violence.

(46) Egyptian politicians admitted (and see this) that government employees looted priceless museum artifacts  2011 to try to discredit the protesters.

(47) In 2011, a Colombian colonel admitted that he and his soldiers had lured 57 innocent civilians and killed them – after dressing many of them in uniforms – as part of a scheme to claim that Columbia was eradicating left-wing terrorists. And see this.

(48) Rioters who discredited the peaceful protests against the swearing in of the Mexican president in 2012 admitted that they were paid 300 pesos each to destroy everything in their path. According to Wikipedia, photos also show the vandals waiting in groups behind police lines prior to the violence.

(49) A Colombian army colonel has admitted that his unit murdered 57 civilians, then dressed them in uniforms and claimed they were rebels killed in combat.

(50) On November 20, 2014, Mexican agent provocateurs were transported by army vehicles to participate in the 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping protests, as was shown by videos and pictures distributed via social networks.

(51) The highly-respected writer for the Telegraph Ambrose Evans-Pritchard says that the head of Saudi intelligence – Prince Bandar – recently admitted that the Saudi government controls “Chechen” terrorists.

(52) High-level American sources admitted that the Turkish government – a fellow NATO country – carried out the chemical weapons attacks blamed on the Syrian government; and high-ranking Turkish government admitted on tape plans to carry out attacks and blame it on the Syrian government.

(53) The Ukrainian security chief admits that the sniper attacks which started the Ukrainian coup were carried out in order to frame others. Ukrainian officials admit that the Ukrainian snipers fired on both sides, to create maximum chaos.

(54) Burmese government officials admitted that Burma (renamed Myanmar) used false flag attacks against Muslim and Buddhist groups within the country to stir up hatred between the two groups, to prevent democracy from spreading.

(55) Britain’s spy agency has admitted (and see this) that it carries out “digital false flag” attacks on targets, framing people by writing offensive or unlawful material … and blaming it on the target.

(56) U.S. soldiers have admitted that if they kill innocent Iraqis and Afghanis, they then “drop” automatic weapons near their body so they can pretend they were militants

(57) Similarly, police frame innocent people for crimes they didn’t commit. The practice is so well-known that the New York Times noted in 1981:

In police jargon, a throwdown is a weapon planted on a victim.

Newsweek reported in 1999:

Perez, himself a former [Los Angeles Police Department] cop, was caught stealing eight pounds of cocaine from police evidence lockers. After pleading guilty in September, he bargained for a lighter sentence by telling an appalling story of attempted murder and a “throwdown”–police slang for a weapon planted by cops to make a shooting legally justifiable. Perez said he and his partner, Officer Nino Durden, shot an unarmed 18th Street Gang member named Javier Ovando, then planted a semiautomatic rifle on the unconscious suspect and claimed that Ovando had tried to shoot them during a stakeout.

Wikipedia notes:

As part of his plea bargain, Pérez implicated scores of officers from the Rampart Division’s anti-gang unit, describing routinely beating gang members, planting evidence on suspects, falsifying reports and covering up unprovoked shootings.

This is not limited to the United States, or to police forces.

(As a side note – and while not technically false flag attacks – police have been busted framing innocent people in many other ways, as well.)

(58) A former U.S. intelligence officer recently alleged:

Most terrorists are false flag terrorists or are created by our own security services.

(59) The head and special agent in charge of the FBI’s Los Angeles office said that most terror attacks are committed by the CIA and FBI as false flags. Similarly, the director of the National Security Agency under Ronald Reagan – Lt. General William Odom said:

By any measure the US has long used terrorism. In ‘78-79 the Senate was trying to pass a law against international terrorism – in every version they produced, the lawyers said the US would be in violation.

(audio here).

(60) Leaders throughout history have acknowledged the “benefits” of of false flags to justify their political agenda:

Terrorism is the best political weapon for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death”.
– Adolph Hitler

“Why of course the people don’t want war … But after all it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship … Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.”
– Hermann Goering, Nazi leader.

“The easiest way to gain control of a population is to carry out acts of terror. [The public] will clamor for such laws if their personal security is threatened”.
– Josef Stalin

Postscript:  Unmarked Israeli fighter jets and unmarked torpedo boats attacked – and did everything they could to sink – a U.S. ship off the coast of Egypt in 1967 called the USS Liberty.

The attack started by targeting communications on the ship so that the Americans couldn’t radio for help. The Israelis then jammed the ship’s emergency distress channel, and shot at escaping life rafts in an attempt to prevent survivors from escaping.

Transcripts of conversations between the Israeli pilots and Israeli military show that Israel knew it was an American ship.

Numerous top-level American military and intelligence officials – including Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff – believe that this was a failed false flag attack, and that Israel would have attempted to blame Egypt if the Israeli military had succeeded in sinking the ship. Indeed, President Lyndon Johnson dispatched nuclear-armed fighter jets to drop nuclear bombs on Cairo, Egypt.  They were only recalled at the last minute, when Johnson realized that it was the Israelis – and not the Egyptians – who had fired on the Liberty.

The following actions are arguably an admission that Israel intended to frame Egypt for the attack, and didn’t want the Liberty’s crew to be able to tell the world what really happened: (1) using unmarked jets and boats, (2) destroying the Liberty’s communication equipment and jamming the Liberty’s emergency distress channel, and (3) trying to sink the ship and destroy all liferafts.

 See this, this, this and this.
I want to thank for putting in all the hours of research that went into gathering all the information.


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