“Only a third of the two million Armenians in Turkey have survived, and that at the price of apostatizing to Islam or else of leaving all they had and fleeing across the frontier.”

Historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee died OCTOBER 2, 1975.

He provided foreign intelligence for the British during World Wars I and II, and served as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conferences following both wars.

Arnold Joseph Toynbee was educated at Oxford “almost entirely in the Greek and Latin Classics.”

Toynbee taught at King’s College of London, the London School of Economics, and the Royal Institute of International Affairs.

Toynbee authored many history books, including Greek Policy Since 1882 (1914), and The Murderous Tyranny Of The Turks (London, New York: Hodder & Stoughton, 1917), in which he wrote:

“Turks … from Central Asia, ruled during the first two centuries of their conquests by … unscrupulous Sultans, who subjugated the Christian populations of Asia Minor and South-Eastern Europe, compelling part of these populations to embrace Mohammedanism,

and supporting their own power by seizing the children of the rest, forcibly converting them to Islam, and making out of them an efficient standing army, the Janizaries, by whose valour and discipline the Turkish wars of conquest were carried on from early in the 15th down into the 19th century …”

Toynbee explained:

“The Greeks were leaders of civilization in the Ancient World and in the Middle Ages, till the Greek Empire of Constantinople was conquered by the Turks in 1453…

The Armenians were the first people to make Christianity their national religion … They produced a fine literature and architecture, which Turkish conquest destroyed …

Turks have repressed all symptoms of Armenian revival by massacres …”

Tracing the history of the Islamic State, Toynbee continued:

“There are three stages in the history of Ottoman tyranny …

Osman, its founder, from whom the Osmanli Turks take their name, was the hereditary chief of a wandering band of Turkish freebooters from Central Asia … carve(d) out a principality for himself at the expense of the neighboring Christians …

This Ottoman dominion, which started thus in the 13th century with a few square miles of territory in North-Western Asia Minor, expanded during the next 300 years till it stretched from within a few miles of Vienna to Mecca and Baghdad.

… It destroyed the Ancient Empire of Constantinople, which had preserved Greek learning during the Middle Ages; the free Christian kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Wallachia, Moldavia and Hungary…

Such a career of destructive conquest was a disaster to civilization, and it was only made possible by a ruthless militarism …”

Toynbee described:

“The Ottoman method of conscription was to take a tribute of children from the conquered Christians so many children from each family every so many years bring them up in barracks as fanatical Moslems and train them as professional recruits.

These ‘Janissaries,’ militarized from their youth up and divorced from every human relation except loyalty to their war-lord, were the most formidable soldiers in Europe, and each new Christian land they conquered was a new field of recruitment for their corps.

The Ottoman Empire literally drained its victims’ blood, and its history as a Vampire-State is unparalleled in the history of the world.”

Toynbee wrote further:

“This was the first stage in Ottoman history;

the second … was internal and external decay.

The Empire was cut short by Austria, Russia and other foreign powers;

the subject peoples began to win back their freedom by breaking away from under the Turkish yoke …

The Turkish … tradition of violence and cunning … tried to stave off the consequences of its own rottenness by making the subject peoples even weaker and more wretched than itself …”

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Toynbee continued:

“This was the policy of Abd-ul-Hamid, who reigned from 1876 to 1908, and his method was to set one race against another.

Kurds were encouraged to massacre the Armenians; the Turkish soldiers were ordered to join in the massacre when the Armenians put up a resistance …

Turkish troops came up and burned the village for treason against the Ottoman State.”

Toynbee described the brief euphoria when dictator Abd-ul-Hamid was deposed and they were promised democracy.

But high hopes were dashed when this Turkish ‘Spring’ was co-opted by fundamentalist Muslims who began a genocide, as Toynbee described:

“In the FIRST STAGE the subject peoples paid their tribute of children…

In the SECOND STAGE they were hounded on to destroy each other by the Machiavellian policy of Abd-ul-Hamid.

The THIRD STAGE has been introduced by the Young Turks…a government employing its resources in the murder of its own people…

When the Young Turks came into power in 1908 they announced a program of ‘Ottomanisation.’

Every language in the Empire but Turkish was to be driven off…

Non-Turkish majority was to be assimilated to the Turkish minority by coercion…

The Turks drive forth Greeks and Bulgars destitute from their homes and possessions.

The Magyars mobilize troops to terrorize Slovaks and Romanians at the elections;

the Turks draft the criminals from their prisons into the Gendarmeri to exterminate the Armenian race…

The Young Turks have pursued their nationalistic program by butchery.

The Adana massacres of 1909…occurred within a year of the proclamation of the Young Turk Constitution, which assured equal rights of citizenship to all inhabitants of the Empire.

…In 1913 the Turkish Army was engaged in exterminating the Albanians because they had an un-Ottoman national spirit of their own.

This work was interrupted by the Balkan War, but the Turks revenged themselves for their defeat…by exterminating all Greeks and Slavs left in the territory they still retained…

Only a third of the two million Armenians in Turkey have survived, and that at the price of apostatizing to Islam or else of leaving all they had and fleeing across the frontier.

… The refugees saw their women and children die by the roadside, and apostasy too, for a woman, involved the living death of marriage to a Turk and inclusion in his harem.

The other two-thirds … were marched away from their homes … with no food or clothing for the journey, in fierce heat and bitter cold, hundreds of miles over rough mountain roads.

They were plundered and tormented by their guards, and by subsidized bands of brigands, who descended on them in the wilderness, and with whom their guards fraternized.

Parched with thirst, they were kept away from the water with bayonets.

… They died of hunger and exposure and exhaustion, and in lonely places the guards and robbers fell upon them and murdered them in batches some at the first halting place after the start, others after they had endured weeks of this agonizing journey.

About half the deportees and there was at least 1,200,000 … perished thus on their journey,

and the other half have been dying lingering deaths ever since at their journey’s end; for they have been deported to the most inhospitable regions in the Ottoman Empire:

-the malarial marshes in the Province of Konia;
-the banks of the Euphrates where, between Syria and Mesopotamia, it runs through a stony desert;
-the sultry and utterly desolate track of the Hedjaz Railway …

The same campaign of extermination has been waged against the Nestorian Christians on the Persian frontier …

In Syria there is a reign of terror …”

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Toynbee added:

“The ‘Deportation Scheme’ was drawn up by the central government …

No State could be more completely responsible for any act within its borders than the Ottoman State is responsible for the appalling crimes it has committed against its subject peoples …”

Toynbee wrote:

“Turkish rule … is now, oppressing or massacring, slaughtering or driving from their homes, the Christian population of Greek or Bulgarian stock … Armenia and Cilicia, and Syria, where within the last two years it has been destroying its Christian subjects …

The Young Turkish gang who gained power when they had deposed Abd-ul-Hamid, have surpassed even that monster of cruelty in their slaughter of the unoffending Armenians.

The ‘Committee of Union and Progress’ began by promising equal rights to all races and faiths …

It proceeded … to expel the Greek-speaking inhabitants of Western Asia Minor, and to exterminate the Armenians…

The Muslim peasant of Asia Minor is an honest, kindly fellow when not roused by fanaticism …

President Wilson…called upon … Allied Nations … that they … make good their words:

‘The liberation of the peoples who now lie beneath the murderous tyranny of the Turks …'”

Toynbee continued:

“Turkish tyranny … putting the clock in South-Eastern Europe a century back … to reconquer for Militarism the field which the 19th century won here for Democracy … destroying without interference a multitude of smaller and weaker peoples from Alsace to Romania and from Schleswig to Baghdad …”

Arnold Toynbee was a correspondent for the Manchester Guardian during the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922).

His 12-volume Study Of History (1934-1961), described the rise, flowering, and decline of 26 cultures from Egypt, Greece and Rome to Polynesia and Peru.

After World War II, Toynbee wrote Historians Approach To Religion (1956), and Change And Habit: The Challenge Of Our Time (1966), in which he predicted that China would become the major global power if the United States and the Soviet Union could not maintain world order.

“Civilizations die from suicide, not by murder,” argued Toynbee, who saw religion as a prime motivation in history.

Toynbee continued:

“When I started, religion was not a prominent feature …

In writing my study, I have been constantly surprised to find religion coming back to fill an even greater place.”

Toynbee concluded:

“So what does the universe look like? …

It looks as if everything were on the move either toward its Creator or away from Him …

The course of human history consists of a series of encounters … in which each man or woman or child … is challenged by God to make the free choice between doing God’s will and refusing to do it.

When Man refuses, he is free to make his refusal and to take the consequences.”

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Zoe Konstantopoulou’s speech in the Greek Parliament on 22 July 2015: The complete subordination of a democratic country to the will and demands of other governments is not an agreement

Admittedly the politically and personally painful moments which we have experienced in parliament during this term are multiplying.

In my capacity as Speaker of the House, I sent a letter to the President of the Republic, Mr. Prokopis Pavlopoulos and to Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras (see in French :http://cadtm.org/Lettre-de-Zoe-Konstantopoulou-Le), noting that it is my institutional responsibility to emphasize and underline that the conditions this bill is being introduced under allow no guarantees of compliance with the constitution, no protection of the democratic process or the exercise of legislative power of parliament, nor a conscientious vote by members of parliament (see post-scriptum in http://cadtm.org/Greece-The-Consequences-of-the). Those conditions are blatant blackmail by foreign governments of European Union member States on this government and on the members of parliament. The legal measures are introduced without any possibility of amendment by the parliament as was acknowledged by the Justice Minister, whom I honor and respect deeply, as he knows; their implementation would result in a major intervention in the functioning of justice and the exercise of the fundamental rights of the citizens, tearing down both the functioning of Greek democracy as a social state under the rule of law in which there is a separation of powers according to the Constitution, as well as the preservation of the principle of fair trial.

Ministers are being coerced into introducing legal measures whose contents they do not agree with, but which they are directly opposed to, in this respect the statement by the Justice Minister was telling, and members of parliament are being coerced into voting them, while they too are opposed to their contents, and in this respect every statement by members of parliament in the two parliamentary groups which make up the parliamentary majority was also telling.

All this is happening under the direct threat of a disorderly default and reveal that, in truth, this bill which foreign governments and not the Greek government have chosen as a prerequisite, is an attempt at the completion of a dissolution, since this bill contains a major intervention into the third independent function, which is justice. This bill attempts to undermine the functioning of justice and is lifting basic guarantees to a fair trial and basic and fundamental rights of citizens.

I consider it my institutional duty to react as Speaker of the House as well and to ask my counterparts in all the parliaments of the member States of the European Union, as I have done in the past and as I did in my letter to the President of the European Parliament (see http://cadtm.org/Letter-Addressed-to-President-of ), to react and to take a stand against this dissolution.

Likewise in my letter to the President and the Prime Minister, which I am going to enter in the minutes, I have asked them to formally inform their counterparts of the coercive and forceful conditions under which this vote has occurred.

Minister, I am addressing you in my capacity of the previous parliamentary term. I have addressed you before in this capacity, when I congratulated you for the bills you introduced and especially for your pioneering legislation on the prison system. I am addressing you from the capacity with which I was honored by the parliamentary group of SYRIZA and the current Prime Minister, then opposition leader Mr. Alexis Tsipras, the capacity of the head of the SYRIZA parliamentary group for transparency, justice and human rights and from this capacity I tell you that it is evident that no one in the parliamentary group of SYRIZA endorses the provisions of this bill because the parliamentary group of SYRIZA during the previous period as well, had expressly objected to and strongly opposed this same law, which ironically, is being introduced in an identical form, as it had been introduced by your predecessor Mr Athanassiou, and is being accelerated in a shocking way by the creditors in order to put the nail in the coffin of one more expression of democracy.

Because just like they have attempted to turn the NO of the Greek people into a YES in both the communiqué of the Euro Summit as well as in the previous law introduced here again through emergency procedures last Wednesday, so they are attempting to convert the 93.12% NO of lawyers as recorded in a nationwide referendum for the first time in early December 2014, into a YES.

These deprecating moves against democratic expression are entirely symbolic on the level of a referendum of lawyers and on the level of a nationwide referendum of citizens so that there is no doubt that the message which is being sent by the creditors is that democratic processes are futile, that direct democracy as expressed by citizens or professionals (lawyers, in this case), is irrelevant.
This is a poisonous message for European societies, it is a message that the left and SYRIZA must not allow to be either sent or circulated.

It is clear that what is being attempted is the obliteration of both the government and the parliamentary groups that support it, through blackmail. It is clear that what is being directly questioned is democracy in our country. What is asked of us, what is asked of me, Minister, by the creditors is, in reality, to issue, if I could, a seal that would say, “Greek Parliament” and hand it over to them in order to validate their diktats.

It is not acceptable that after SYRIZA and the committee for justice, rights and transparency struggled so fiercely against the undemocratic manipulation of the 800 pages in the article that was the measures of November 2012, the government be forced by blackmail and humiliation (that is the intention) to now introduce 977 pages, in two articles, one of which contains 1008 articles of the Civil Procedure code and the other 130 articles incorporating a European directive, many of which are 2 and 3 pages long. The government of the left cannot be forced to introduce such abbreviated and condensed, urgent articles, with suffocating deadlines, articles it has consistently denounced in the past.

Minister, I know that by addressing you I am knocking on an open door, because you have consistently fought against such regulations, you have consistently expressed and thoroughly analyzed
all the reasons why this code should have been withdrawn in 2014, and indeed was withdrawn, and that was a great victory not only for the lawyers who put up a struggle in defense of citizens but it was also a huge victory for the citizens’ movements, for all those bodies which were mobilized and it certainly was a huge victory for the main opposition party of the previous period and the opposition as a whole.

This is the victory they want to turn into defeat and destruction in order to once again send the message that we must legislate through fear. Mr Juncker said it today, shamelessly: “fear,” he said, “has led to the agreement”; and is it ever possible for this to be accepted and tolerated in a European Union, which has as its statutory principle the welfare of peoples and societies, the protection of rights and the shielding of democracy?

Minister, the NO of the lawyers on the 2nd and 3d December 2014 meant and still means NO to fast-track foreclosures, NO to auctions and forced expulsions, NO to mock trials on paper to prevent the hearing from proceeding, NO to the further degradation of justice, which is a pillar of democracy, it means NO to a further undermining of the constitutional rights of citizens.

When in the summer of 2014 Mr. Hardouvelis brazenly undertook the obligation to compensate for any consequences of judicial rulings which would annul memorandum provisions, the then opposition, the justice committee and the department of justice of SYRIZA were the first to step forward and say this could not be tolerated. Yet it is that very same bill that is being forced through with blackmail. So it would be good for my colleagues and comrades, whom I honor without exception, not to forget their own commitments and speak of an agreement. Coercion is not an agreement, blackmail is not an agreement, the aim to force the complete subordination of a democratic country to the will and demands of other governments and other countries, is not an agreement.

And we must not forget our commitments because at some point we might forget everything and we might begin referring to the content of this bill as if it was our own. It is not our own, it is not the wish and the will of the government. This is also made evident, Minister, by the fact that you have set up a special committee to examine another draft code of Civil Procedure.

And it is not even the wish of members of parliament, who will vote in favor and belong to parliamentary groups supporting the government. It is not their wish to apply these inhumane measures, which leave citizens (borrowers especially) completely defenceless in front of the banks (see post-scriptum in http://cadtm.org/Greece-The-Consequences-of-the ).

Minister, you know it, but perhaps citizens do not know this well, that the head of the committee that drafted this code was Mr Chamilothoris, who was responsible for the monstrous memorandum law 4055 of 2012, which has been collectively denounced not only by bodies but also by lawyers and representatives of the judiciary and which SYRIZA has pledged to repeal but also, that members of the drafting committee of this legislation which is now being accelerated are legal advisors of the banks. That is who the members of the legislative drafting committee that was formed by the memorandum governments are and there should be no doubt that the objective served is precisely, once more, to hand over of the property of the citizens to the banks, that is the servicing of the banks and the bankers at the expense of citizens.

We must not open the door to allow this objective to be implemented, an objective promoted by the adoption today of this Code of Civil Procedure and here I would ask you specifically and my colleagues who are lawyers, to speak frankly; passing legislation is not a trivial thing, it is not a temporary thing and not a joke. This framework is becoming State law for the first time and indeed, in the form of a code. It is becoming State law that the Greek State is giving way to the banks and ranks after the banks in auction procedures. It is becoming State law that workers give way to the banks and rank after the banks at auctions. It is not enough to say that we vote now and will make sure they will not be applied. When we attempt to stop them from being applied, they will tell us, “but you voted for it”; moreover we know that we ourselves will not be in office permanently, whatever our present position.

This is a piece of legislation that goes into force on 01/01/2016. That proves both that there is no urgency and that it can be discussed under normal conditions but also it raises major concerns in relation to the future aspirations and achievements of those who seek to overthrow this government and to humiliate the political forces that support it, and to prevent them (us) from standing tall in the minds of citizens and of society.

Colleagues, as a member of parliament for SYRIZA I could never vote for this bill; as one formerly in charge of the committee for the control of parliamentary work in issues of justice, transparency and human rights of the Parliamentary Group of SYRIZA, from which position I fought for three years to stop the memoranda attack on justice and civil rights but also the memoranda orgy of corruption and vested interests, I could never vote for this bill; as a lawyer, I could never vote for this bill and as Speaker of the House, I could never legalize procedures which will make Parliament merely decorative, which waive the guarantee function of Parliament, circumventing the conscience of parliamentarians and ultimately discarding democracy. Thank you.

Translated by Zoe Mavroudi and CADTM.

Source: Cadtm.org
25 July by Zoe Konstantopoulou


Zoe Konstantopoulou Greek human rights lawyer and politician of the Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza). On 27 January 2015 she was nominated Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament. She was elected to the post on 6 February 2015 with the record number of 235 out of 300 votes

Other articles in English by Zoe Konstantopoulou (6)

Continue reading

16 Things Libya Will Never See Again

Gaddafi Libya Great Manmade RiverThere is no electricity bill in Libya; electricity is free for all its citizens.

  1. There is no interest on loans, banks in Libya are state-owned and loans given to all its citizens at zero percent interest by law.
  2. Having a home considered a human right in Libya.
  3. All newlyweds in Libya receive $60,000 dinar (U.S.$50,000) by the government to buy their first apartment so to help start up the family.
  4. Education and medical treatments are free in Libya. Before Gaddafi only 25 percent of Libyans were literate. Today, the figure is 83 percent.
  5. Should Libyans want to take up farming career, they would receive farming land, a farming house, equipments, seeds and livestock to kickstart their farms are all for free.
  6. If Libyans cannot find the education or medical facilities they need, the government funds them to go abroad, for it is not only paid for, but they get a U.S.$2,300/month for accommodation and car allowance.
  7. If a Libyan buys a car, the government subsidizes 50 percent of the price.
  8. The price of petrol in Libya is $0.14 per liter.
  9. Libya has no external debt and its reserves amounting to $150 billion are now frozen globally.
  10. If a Libyan is unable to get employment after graduation the state would pay the average salary of the profession, as if he or she is employed, until employment is found.
  11. A portion of every Libyan oil sale is credited directly to the bank accounts of all Libyan citizens.
  12. A mother who gives birth to a child receive U.S.$5,000.
  13. 40 loaves of bread in Libya costs $0.15.
  14. 25 percent of Libyans have a university degree.
  15. Gaddafi carried out the world’s largest irrigation project, known as the Great Manmade River project, to make water readily available throughout the desert country.Source: http://disinfo.com/2011/10/16-things-libya-will-never-see-again/

Estonian Foreign Ministry confirms authenticity of leaked call on Kiev snipers

RT March 05 2014

Estonian foreign ministry has confirmed the recording of his conversation with EU foreign policy chief is authentic. Urmas Paet said that snipers who shot at protesters and police in Kiev were hired by Maidan leaders.

Paet told RIA-Novosti news agency that he talked to Catherine Ashton last week right after retiring from Kiev, but refrained from further comments, saying that he has to “listen to the Continue reading

Leaked EU’s Ashton Phone Tape: Kiev Snipers Were Hired by US Supported Opposition Leaders

Russia Today

Ukraine-Yougo-articleImage: leader of Neo Nazi Svoboda party together with John McCain

Global Research Editor’s Note

On the 20th of February, according to reports, more than twenty protesters were killed by professional snipers. This was not a spontaneous event resulting from clashes between protesters and riot police, nor was it marked by an exchange of gunfire between the police and the Neo-Nazi militia.

The sniper killings had the hallmarks of a carefully planned operation. They happened within ‘the space of a few hours”. Moreover, the killings coincided with the meetings of President Viktor Continue reading

Turkey’s Real Corruption Scandal

Turkey & A Surrogate Battle between East & West for the Future of a Pivotal Land at the Geopolitical Crossroads

fturkeySince December last year, Turkey has been rocked by a series of arrests and waves of allegations that the government of AK Party Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan is riddled with corruption. Erdogan, a scrappy political infighter for all his eccentricities, has fought back and accused “foreign powers” of standing behind his now-arch enemy, former Imam Fethullah Gülen, considered by the US Embassy in Ankara to be the most powerful man in Turkey. What is unfolding across Turkey is far more interesting than your ordinary politician graft scandal. It is an open warfare, not for the future of democracy in Turkey—there is hardly a trace of that. Rather, it is a surrogate battle between East and West for the future of a pivotal land at the geopolitical crossroads between Asia, Europe and the Middle East.

The clash domestically inside Turkey is between the Justice and Police versus family and cronies of Erdogan. In reality it is a kind-of surrogate warfare between a faction in Washington of CIA and hard-core Dick Cheney neo-conservatives whose man in Turkey is Fethullah Gülen. Opposed to this formidable team if Erdogan, determined to survive, and an emerging alliance of Iran, China and even Putin’s Russia.

Fethullah Gülen, whose movement spans the globe and also has huge influence inside the Continue reading

Israel Seizes Emergency Tents Provided By UN

Βy Chris Carlson – 1 of International Middle East Media Center Editorial Group

[Monday, January 13, 2014] Israeli authorities have seized emergency tents provided by the United Nations to shelter families whose homes were demolished by the army last week, according to a UN press release.

image: Wiki Commonsimage: Wiki Commons

The Palestinian News & Info Agency (WAFA) reports that the release, issued by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the occupied Palestinian territories (OCHA), states that the tents were provided to the Bani Manieh families from Jiftlik, in Jericho, after the Israeli army demolished all their residential and livelihood structures on Wednesday.

13 structures, belonging to three families of the Bani Manieh community, were destroyed by the army, displacing 26 people, including 15 children.

The army claims that the area was a military training zone.

The Jordan Valley makes up about 29% of the West Bank, and Israel is simultaneously trying to empty the region of its Palestinian Arab citizens, as it attempts to keep control over the area in any future peace deal with the Palestinians.

The Palestinians refuse to allow any Israeli presence in the Jordan Valley and assert that this land is vital to their economy and statehood.

Source: imemc.org