Monthly Archives: August, 2018

Count Richard Nicolaus Coudenhove Kalergi – Practical Idealism, (Praktischer Idealismus)

New March 2017 – Download pdf file
Complete English translation of the entire book Practical Idealism
Website note: We have had no time to check this translation

The Racist and Supremacist Roots
of the
Ideology behind the European Union 

Short link to this articlehttp://balder.org/couen

NEW! Video by Matthew North uploaded September 2017

Set in Limited State by YouTube Censors ADL

Download here (right click and choose save as, or save target as):

The Kalergi Plan – Full Documentary Creation Of The EU International Communism

YouTube URLhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QBXdkbZE

Matthew North’s YouTube Channel

(Original page continued)

Numbers in square brackets: [12] refer to pages in the original book / the downloadable pdf-document. A few headings which are not part of the original text have been inserted by me. Comments in square brackets are also mine. I have tried to follow the original – somewhat archaic, and in some places a bit hard to read – German text as closely as possible. I also invite others to translate the text into other languages and send me their translated text for publication on my website. Europeans have a right to this information.

Images captions and inserted textboxes are not part of the original document


English translation of selections of Practical Idealism (Praktischer Idealismus)

Coudenhove Kalergi was not Jewish himself. On his fathers side he was of mixed European descent (Flemish. Chech Hungarian Greek) with lots of nobility.

His mother was a Japanese from an aristocratic family.

He married the 13 year older Jewess Ida Roland[born Ida Klausner] a popular actress with whom he has two sons. Ida Roland died in 1951. In 1952 he married Alexandra Gräfin von Tiele, born Bally. In 1969 he married the Austrian Jewess Melanie Benatzky Hoffmann.

Richard Coudenhove Kalergi
Richard Nicolaus
Coudenhove Kalergi
1894-1972
Count R. N. Courdenhove-Kalergi is seen by many as the father of the modern European Union. It was him who suggested Beethovens hymn as the EU’s national anthem, and was very active in connection with the design of the EU logo which contains 12 stars which symbolize the 12 tribes of Israel. The logo was finalized by the Jew Paul M.G. Lévi2)

Otto von Habsburg was Coudenhove-Kalergi’s successor as president of the Pan European Union. He is a honorary professor of the University of Jerusalem, and recipient of the ‘International Humanitarian Award’, of the ‘Anti Defamation-League‘ (ADL) of the Jewish B’nai B’rith Masonery Lodge.

Coudenhove-Kalergi’s father was a close friend of Theodor Herzl, the founder of Zionism


Praktischer Idealismus

Forbidden in Germany

Hidden by the European Movement

This book has probably not been printed in many copies, since it is very hard to get hold of a printed copy today.
In Germany the book is practically censored, even though it is not on the official list of books censored by the German government, it is not possible to buy it in any bookstores in Germany, neither new nor used.

When the publishing company ‘Independent News’ [Unabhängige Nachrichten] around 1990 published a summary of the book and contemplated printing it in it’s entirety, the government initiated a police search of the premises, and the only copy of Praktischer Idealismus was confiscated.

The book is also not mentioned on the official Internet pages of the Pan European Movement, which is understandable because its content is directly in opposition to the movement’s official program. The question is how this discrepancy originated: Was the Pan European Movement hijacked? Or was Praktischer Idealismus only meant for the few in the inner circles, and all the talk of Christian values, democracy etc. only empty rhetoric? Translated from Danish Wikipedia article

By Count Richard N. Coudenhove Kalergi – published in Vienna 1925.

Europeans to become negroid mongrels

The man of the future will be a mongrel. Today’s races and classes will disappear owing to the disappearing of space, time, and prejudice.

The Eurasian-Negroid race of the future, similar in its outward appearance to the Ancient Egyptians, will replace the diversity of peoples with a diversity of individuals. [22]

Christianity, ethically prepared by the Jewish Essays (John), spiritually prepared by the Jewish Alexandrians (Philo), was regenerated Jewry. Insofar as Europe is Christian, it is in a spiritual sense Jewish, insofar as Europe is moral, it is Jewish.

Almost all of European ethics are rooted in Jewry. All protagonists for a religious or non religious Christian morality, from Augustine to Rousseau, Kant and Tolstoy, were Jews of choice [Wahljuden] in a spiritual sense. Nietzsche is the only non Jew, the only European heathen moralist.

In the East the Chinese people are the ethical par excellence [..] – in the West it is the Jews.

God was the head of state of the ancient Jews, their moral laws civil law, sin was crime.

Through the ages Jewry has remained faithful to the theocratic idea of the identification of politics and ethics: Christianity and Socialism are both attempts to create an earthly paradise. [lit.: a State of God]

Two thousand years ago, the ancient Christians – not the Pharisees and Sadducees – were the revivers of the Mosaic tradition; today it is neither the Zionists nor the Christians, but the Jewish leaders of Socialism: because they wish, with the most exalted unselfishness, to erase the original sin of capitalism, to free the people from injustice, violence and subservience and to change the redeemed world into an earthly paradise. [27]

From Moses to Weininger ethics have been the main problem for Jewish philosophy.

In this ethical basic attitude to the world lies one origin of the exceptional greatness of the Jewish people – at the same time also the danger that Jews who have forgotten their belief in the ethics sink to become cynical egoists: while people with another mentality – even after losing their ethical attitude – still retain some amount of chivalrous values and prejudices (man of honor, gentleman, cavalier etc.), which protects them from the fall into the abyss of values.

What mainly separates the Jews from the average city dwellers is the fact that they are inbred people.

Strength of character paired with sharpness of the mind predestinates the Jews in their most excellent specimen to become the leaders of urbane humanity, from the false to the genuine spiritual aristocrats to the protagonists of capitalism as well as of the revolution. [28]

Now we stand at the threshold of the third epoch of the new times: Socialism.

Also socialism is supported by the urban class of industrial workers, led by the aristocracy of revolutionary writers.

The influence of the aristocracy by blood, the influence of the aristocracy of the mind is growing.

This development, and with it the chaos of modern politics will only then find its end, when a spiritual aristocracy seizes the means of power of society: [gun] powder, gold, ink, and use them for the blessing of the general public. [32]

Communist dictatorship: Important step on the way

Russian Bolshevism constitutes a decisive step towards this purpose where a small group of communist spiritual aristocrats govern the country and consciously break with the plutocratic [plutocratic = rule or power through wealth] democratism which nowadays controls the rest of the world.

The fight between Capitalism and Communism over the inheritance of the beseeched blood aristocracy is a fratricidal war of the victorious brain aristocracy, a fight between individualistic and socialist, egoist and altruist, heathen and Christian spirit.

Race of nobility

Genrikh Yagoda

Lazar Kaganovich

Bela Kun
Leon Trozki
Leon Trotzki

Emma Goldman

Theodor Hertzl
Race of nobility – Anno 2007

Michel Friedman

Alan Yentob – BBC

Lord Hollick – ITV
Arne Notkin - Denmarks State Radio
Arne Notkin – DR

Leonid Nevzlin

Gussinski

Simon Wiesenthal

Boris Beresovski

Mihail Khodorkovsky

Marcus Wolf STASI
Führers of Humanity – Anno 2007

Alan Dershowitz

David Horowitz

Richard Perle

Paul Wolfowitz

Paul Spiegel

Yitzhak Ginsburgh

Ariel Sharon

Abe Foxman

The general staff of both parties is recruited from Europe’s spiritual leader race[Führerrasse] the Jews.

Capitalism and Communism are both rational, both mechanical, both abstract, both urbane. The military nobility has definitively outplayed its role. The effect of the spirit, the power of the spirit, the belief in the spirit, the hope for the spirit is growing: and with it a new aristocracy. [33]

[44] In order to ascend, to advance objectives are needed, to reach objectives people are needed who define objectives, leading on to objectives: aristocracy.

The aristocrat as a leader is a political concept, the aristocrat as example is an aesthetic ideal.

The highest challenge demands that aristocracy coincide with nobility, leader with example: that leadership falls to perfect people.

European quantity people and Jewish quality people

From the European quantity-people, who only belief in numbers, the mass, two quality races rise up: blood aristocracy and Jewry.

Separate from each other both of them stick to their belief in their higher mission, of their better blood, in the different ranks of the people.

In both of these heterogenic merited races lies the core of the European nobility of the future: in the feudal blood aristocracy, as far as it did not let itself be corrupted by the farm, in the Jewish spiritual aristocracy as far as it did not let itself be corrupted by money [capitalism].

As guarantee for a better future a small rest of the morally high standing rustic[country-style] aristocracy and a small battle group of revolutionary intelligentsia remains.

Here the conformity between Lenin, the man from the lower country aristocracy, and Trotsky, the Jewish literate grows into a symbol: here the contrasts in character and spirit, from squire and literate, from country dwellers and the urbane, heathen and Christian people join into a creative synthesis of revolutionary aristocracy.

One step foreword in the spiritual sense would suffice to place the best elements of blood nobility, who in the country have protected their physical and moral health from the depraving influence of the farm scent, at the service of the new liberation of the people.

For they are pre destined to this positioning by their traditional courage, their anti-bourgeois and anti-capitalist mentality, their responsibility, their contempt for material advantages, their stoic training of the will, their integrity, their idealism. [45]

10. JEWRY FUTURE NOBILITY AND KHASARS

The main representatives of the corrupt as well as the upright brain aristocracy: of capitalism, journalism and the literate are Jews.

The superiority of their spirit predestines them to become a main factor of the future nobility.

One look at the history of the Jewish people explains its lead in the struggle over the governance of humanity. For two thousand years Jewry was a religious community, made up of ethical and religious predisposed individuals from all nations of the classical cultural area, with a national Hebrew centre in Palestine..

Already at that time the common connecting and primary was not the nation, but the religion. In the course of the first millennium of our calendar proselytes from all peoples entered this denomination [religious sect] not least the king, nobility and the people of the Mongolian Khasars, the masters of southern Russia.

Only from then on the Jewish religious community joined itself in an artificial nation and closed itself off from all remaining peoples.

Through unspeakable persecutions throughout a millennium Christian Europe tries to exterminate the Jewish people.

The result was, that all Jews, who were of weak-willed, opportunistic or skeptical let themselves be baptized, in order to escape the torment of endless persecution.

On the other hand all Jews who were not skilled, clever and creative enough to survive this struggle for their existence under these many times harder conditions of life succumbed.

Thus in the end from all these persecutions arose a small community, shaped by a heroically endured martyrdom for the idea and cleansed of all weak-willed elements and poverty of mind.

Instead of destroying Jewry, Europe, against its own will, refined and educated this people into a future leader-nation through this artificial selection process.

No wonder that this people, that escaped Ghetto-Prison, developed into a spiritual nobility of Europe.

A new Noble Race by the Grace of the Spirit

Therefore a gracious Providence provided Europe with a new race of nobility through spiritual grace.

This happened at the moment when Europe’s feudal aristocracy became dilapidated, and thanks to Jewish emancipation.

The first typical representative of this becoming future nobility was the noble-Jew[Edeljude] LaSalle who combines to a high degree physical beauty with nobility of mind and sharpness of the spirit: Aristocrat in the highest and truest sense of the word, he was a born leader and signpost of his time.

The Jewish heroes and martyrs of the Eastern and Middle European Revolution are in no way inferior to the non Jewish heroes of the World War in courage, perseverance and idealism – while they surpass the latter many times in spirit. [50]

With these two attempts to redemption of a spiritual-moral origin, Jewry has bestowed a greater gift on to the disinherited masses of Europe than any other people.

How modern Jewry also surpasses all other peoples in percentage of important men: scarcely one century after its liberation this small people stands with Einstein at the frontrunner of modern science; with Mahler as the frontrunner of modern music, with Bergson as a frontrunner of modern philosophy, with Trotsky as the frontrunner of modern politics. [51]

Hateful jealous Europeans…

The prominent position held by Jewry these days is owed to its spiritual supremacy which enables it to win the spiritual battle over enormous superior numbers of favored, hateful, jealous rivals.

Modern anti-Semitism is one of the many reactionary phenomenons of the mediocre against the supreme; it is a new form of ostracism applied against a whole people. [ostracize = exclude]

Inferior majorities, high quality minorities

As a people Jewry experiences the eternal struggle of quantity against quality, inferior groups against high quality individuals, inferior majorities against superior minorities.

The main roots of anti-Semitism are limitedness and envy: limitedness in the religious or the scientific; envy in the spiritual or financial realm.

Because they sprung from an international religious community and not from a local race, the Jews are the people with the most mixed blood; because they have closed themselves off against the other peoples for a millennium, they are also the most inbred.

Germany Must Perish – The Kaufman Plan

A plan similar to Kaufman’s was issued during the war years by a prominent American anthropologist. In an article headlined “Breed War Strain Out of Germans” in the New York daily newspaper P.M., January 4, 1943, Ernest Hooton laid out an “outbreeding” plan that would “destroy German nationalism and aggressive ideology while retaining and perpetuating desirable German biological and sociological capacities.” (See also: Benjamin Colby, ‘Twas a Famous Victory, 1974, p. 131.)

The Harvard University professor’s proposal called for genetically transforming the German nation by encouraging mating of German women with non-German men, who would be brought into the country in large numbers, and of German men, forcibly held outside of Germany, with non-German women.

Ten to twelve million German men would be assigned to forced labor under Allied supervision in countries outside of Germany to rebuild their economies. “The objects of this measure,” wrote Dr. Hooton, “include reduction of the birthrate of ‘pure’ Germans, neutralization of German aggressiveness by outbreeding and denationalization of indoctrinated individuals.”

This plan, Hooton estimated, would require at least 20 years to be implemented. “During this period,” he went on, “encourage also the immigration and settlement in the German states of non-German nationals, especially males.” More: Germany Must Perish

Download Germany must Perish and The Morgenthau Plan (in German – pdf)

Not only tomorrow’s revolutionary spiritual aristocracy – also today’s plutocratic black marketeer-Kakistocracy [Kakistocracy = government by the worst] is mainly recruited from Jews: and thus sharpens the agitatory weapons of anti-Semitism.

Thousands of years of slavery have bereft the Jews, with rare exceptions, of the gestures of the member of the master race [Herrenmenschen].

Perpetual repression inhibits the development of the personality: and thereby takes away one of the main elements of the esthetic ideals of nobility.

A large part of Jewry suffers physically as well as psychologically from this deficiency; this shortcoming is one of the main reasons that the European instinct refuses to accept Jewry as a race of nobility.

The resentment with which the suppression has burdened Jewry, gives it much vital tension, but bereaves it of much noble harmony.

Excessive inbreeding, in connection with the ghetto past was the cause of many traits of physical and psychological decadence.

What the head of the Jews won, their bodies often lost; what their brains won their nervous systems lost.

Thus Jewry suffers from a hypertrophy1) of the brain which is in opposition to the demands of nobility and the harmonic development of the personality.

The physical and nervous weakness of many spiritually excellent Jews shows a lack of physical courage (often in connection with the highest form op moral courage) and insecurity in performance, qualities which today seem incompatible with the chivalrous ideal of aristocratic people. [53]

Noble Master Race damaged by Slave People

So much has the spiritual Master Race of the Jews suffered under the traits of the slave people that have impressed him in his historical development: still today many leading Jewish personalities carry the posture and gestures of the un-free repressed person.

In their gestures descended aristocrats are often nobler than excellent Jews. These shortcomings of Jewry, originated because of the development, will again vanish because of development.

The adaptation to country style [Rustikalisierung] (a main objective of Zionism), together with sporty upbringing, will free Jewry of the ghetto rest it still carries within itself.

That this is possible is proved by the development of American Jewry. The actual freedom and power that Jewry has attained will gradually make the consciousness of those, the consciousness gradually following the posture and gestures of the free, powerful people.

Not only Jewry will move in the direction of the Western aristocratic ideals – also the Western aristocratic ideal will experience a transformation which will meet Jewry half way.

In a more peaceful future Europe the aristocracy will strip off its warlike character and exchange it with a spiritual – priestly ditto.

A pacified and socialized Occident will no longer need masters and rulers, – only leaders, educator, examples. [54]

Europe has been conquered religiously by Jews, – military by the Germanics: In Asia the religions of India and Arabia were victorious, while their supreme political power is Japan.

The German version of the excerpts on this page – Auszüge aus Praktischer Idealismus

Download the whole book in German: Praktischer Idealismus (pdf) [Please notify me if link is dead]

Footnotes

1) Hypertrophy is the increase of the size of an organ or in a select area of the tissue

2) Quote from Die Welt August 26 1998, P. 12. ‘Die Zwölfzahl der Sterne ist ein Hinweis auf die zwölf Stammen Israels und somit auf das auserwählte Volk Gottes.’ [‘The number twelve of the stars is a reference to the twelve tribes of Israel and thereby to God’s chosen people.’]


Paul Warburg
Paul Warburg
Bernard Baruch
Bernard Baruch

The family of (Samuel Moses) Del Branco in 1559 moved from Italy to Germany taking the name Warburg. In 1798, the family founded the bank of M. M. Warburg & Co. Paul Warburg was a German immigrant arriving in America together with his brother Felix. Both brothers, who were Illuminati and also member of B’nai B’rith, became partners of the banking house Kuhn, Loeb & Co.

The well-known freemason James Paul Warburg said before the US Senate on 17 February 1950: “We shall have World Government, whether we like it or not. The only question is whether World Government will be achieved by conquest or consent.”

Paul Warburg was married to Nina Loeb, daughter of the banker Salomon Loeb. Kuhn, Loeb & Co., of the most influential finance company in the United States in the early 1900s. Paul’s brother Felix Warburg was married to Frieda Schiff, whose father was the notorious Jacob Schiff. Schiff, a leading Zionist, was the principal owner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. He had helped finance Lev Trotsky when the bolsheviks seized power. Prior to that, he had helped Alexander Kerensky (Aron Kiirbis) to power. Jacob Schiff had further ordered Lenin to execute the tsar family, as demonstrated by the telegram he
sent to Lenin.

Coudenhove-Kalergi in his autobiography:

“At the beginning of 1924, we received a call from Baron Louis de Rothschild; one of his friends, Max Warburg from Hamburg, had read my book and wanted to get to know us.

To my great surprise, Warburg spontaneously offered us 60,000 gold marks, to tide the movement over for its first three years ….

Max Warburg, who was one of the most distinguished and wisest men that I have ever come into contact with, had a principle of financing these movements.

He remained sincerely interested in Pan-Europe for his entire life.

Max Warburg arranged his 1925 trip to the United States to introduce me to Paul Warburg and financier Bernard Baruch.

Finance theorist Ludwig von Mises (supported by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation) also participated in Coudenhove-Kalergi’s Pan-European Movement.

Later von Mises disciples Arthur Burns and Milton Friedman spread von Mises ideas through a network of secret ‘conservative’ think tanks, led by the Mont Pelerin Society(More here)

 

 

 

 Practical Idealism – Coudenhove Kalergi English Translation complete book (download pdf)

 April 18 2008 – European Union honors racist philosopher Coudenhove-Kalergi, architect of the EU dictatorship

Walter Lippmann, Friedrich von Hayek, Otto von Habsburg, Coudenhover-Kalergi, Hjalmar Schacht, Rothschild, Ludwig Von Mises, Arthur Burns, Milton Friedman, Mont Pelerin Society, Murray Rothbard. Detailed backgroundThe Synarchy – A ‘Judeo-Christian’ Theocracy – Front for the International Jewish Banking Cartel

 Balder.org 30 november 2013 – November 12, 2012 – The award of the Coudenhove-Kalergi Prize to EU President Van Rompuy

 Wiki-Company – Masonic Politicians

 Freemasons, Jabulon, Königlicher Bogen vom Unsinn 6 januar 2012 – Graf Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi

 R.N. Coudenhove-Kalergi Wikipedia Deutsch

 Gerd Honsik – Rassismus legal? – Halt dem Kalergiplan

 Verschwörungen – Richard Nikolaus Graf von Coudenhove-Kalergi


 Balder.org – Official Danish holocaust researcher refutes claim of 6 million Jews killed during The Holocaust

Balder.org – Articles about Holocaust, Zionism, Judaism, Jewish Censorship, Israel Lobby, persecution, Revisionism, Holocaust denial   

Balder.org – Articles about Eurabia, Euromediterranean, Barcelona Declaration, Unlimited Immigration to Europe. English Deutsch Dansk   

Til Forsiden

Sir. William Brooke O’Shaughnessy – Medical Cannabis Pioneer

By Brian Houlihan

Sir. William Brooke O’Shaughnessy (1809– 1889)

It is widely known that before prohibition was enacted cannabis was available from pharmacies for medicinal purposes. Tinctures and other products were prescribed to treat various ailments. This period roughly occurred between 1840 and the early 1900’s until prohibition begun to be enforced.

Lesser known is that the Limerick born doctor Sir. William Brooke O’Shaughnessy helped introduced cannabis into Western medicine. Although now largely forgotten by history it was O’Shuaghnessy who undertook research in India and subsequently stimulated medical cannabis use and research throughout the West.

O’Shaughnessy also made significant contributions to various other fields of scientific study with many of his innovations still in use. He also played a role in cementing British rule in India by establishing its expansive telegraph communications network and he was later knighted for this work.

William Brooke O’Shaughnessy was born in Limerick in 1809 and it is suggested that from a young age he showed the potential he would later fulfill. He first studied medicine at Trinity in Dublin before transferring to the University of Edinburgh in Scotland from where he graduated in 1829.

The University of Edinburgh was considered one of the best medical schools in the world and it was quite an achievement for O’Shaughnessy, who was barely 18 years old, to be accepted into it. At the university he studied an array of topics like medicine, chemistry, forensic toxicology and anatomy.

Some of cadavers O’Shaughnessy used when studying anatomy under Professor Robert Knox were likely supplied by the infamous grave robbers Burke and Hare.

After his graduation O’Shaughnessy moved to London and established his own forensic toxicology laboratory after he was unable to find work. His laboratory provided chemical analyses of urine, blood, and tissue for doctors, hospitals, and the courts. During this period he also researched possible treatments for cholera and ways of detecting poison.

In 1833 O’Shaughnessy took a job with the East India Company to work in Calcutta as an assistant surgeon. This began his lifetime interest in India. The notorious East India Company effectively ruled India with its private armies between 1757 and 1858.

Like many individuals O’Shaughnessy was part of the ‘brain drain’ from England and Ireland which saw huge numbers seek work in India during this period. One estimate suggests that by 1860 around 30% of Trinity’s engineering graduates had emigrated to India for work.

O’Shaughnessy spent two periods of his life in India. The first was between 1833 and 1841 and the second between 1852 and 1860. It was during his first trip that he researched the medicinal properties of a range of indigenous plants, including opium and cannabis. During his second trip he conducted the work that saw him knighted by Queen Victoria.

Some old cannabis medicines

In India the therapeutic effects of cannabis became known to O’Shaughnessy from his interactions with indigenous people. Cannabis and other plants had been used medicinally and recreationally in the region for thousands of years.

O’Shaughnessy looked at the contemporary medical literature in the West and found little about the medical properties of cannabis. The only references available primarily focused on its intoxicating effects and O’Shaughnessy even found this information was limited.

By contrast the materials in the region had more information on the medicinal properties. In 1969 Dr. Tod Mikuriya wrote that “In India the use of hemp preparations as a remedy was described before 1000 B.C. In Persia, cannabis was known several centuries before Christ. In Assyria, about 650 B.C., its intoxicating properties were noted.”

O’Shaughnessy also detailed some of the preparations used by indigenous people for cannabis drinks and edibles. He even provides the recipes for some of these in his work. O’Shaughnessy also provides some interesting social commentary and observations about the use of cannabis by locals.

In 1839 O’Shaughnessy noted that “All classes of persons, including the lower Portuguese, or ‘Kala Feringhees,’ and especially their females, consume the drug; that it is a most fascinating in its effects, producing extatic (ecstatic) happiness, a persuasion of high rank, a sensation of flying, voracious appetite, and intense aphrodisiac desire.”

Eager to test the claims made by locals about cannabis O’Shaughnessy undertook a range of experiments. He started his research on animals such as mice, rabbits, and rats. He moved onto human subjects after noting how safe cannabis was. During his initial research O’Shaughnessy noticed that not all species of animals were affected the same by cannabis.

He wrote that carnivorous animals and fish, dogs, cats, swine, vultures and crows “invariably and speedily exhibited the intoxicating influence of the drug”. However graminivorous (grazing) animals such as horses, cows, sheep, goats and monkeys “only experienced trivial effects from any dose that was administered.”

O’Shaughnessy first presented his research to a group of students and scholars at the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta in 1839. His presentation featured case studies of patients suffering from ailments such as: Cholera, rheumatism, hydrophobia, tetanus, rabies and a 40 day old baby with convulsions.

O’Shaughnessy also released his findings in a publication called: ‘On the preparations of the Indian hemp, or gunjah (Cannabis Indica), their effects on the animal system in health, and their utility in the treatment of tetanus 6 and other convulsive disorders.’

O’Shaughnessy revealed that he had only limited success in treating rheumatism but that noticeable pain relief was provided by the cannabis.

O’Shaughnessy also had little success in treating hydrophobia or cholera with cannabis, but again noted the beneficial calming and pain relief effects from cannabis.

O’Shaughnessy believed that even if cannabis was not a cure for such ailments it would be beneficial as part of a treatment.

O’Shaughnessy was successful in quelling the muscle spasms associated with conditions like tetanus and rabies. We know that many modern medical cannabis patients use cannabis for easing spasticity (spasms and stiffness) associated with conditions like multiple sclerosis, dystonia and motor neuron disease.

The patient with rabies O’Shaughnessy treated sadly died from the condition. However, O’Shaughnessy states that cannabis helped ease their suffering. He wrote that “. .the awful malady (disease) was stripped of its horrors; if not less fatal than before, it was reduced to less than the scale of suffering which precedes death from most ordinary diseases.”

O’Shaughnessy was also able to stop the infant convulsions (febrile seizures) that a 40 day old infant was suffering from. This led O’Shaughnessy to declare that “the profession has gained an anti-convulsive remedy of the greatest value”.

In recent years cannabis has become an accepted medicine to treat conditions like epilepsy which often feature potentially fatal convulsions. Many of the these patients are in fact children, with many families relocating to cannabis friendly locations such as Colorado to avail of such treatment.

O’Shaughnessy also believed that cannabis could potentially be used as an anesthetic and for providing significant pain relief. Much of his research focused on these areas as during the mid-1800’s many doctors and dentists were seeking anesthesia and pain relief medications. In fact many of the advancements in those fields were occurring at the same time as O’Shaughnessy’s research.

O’Shaughnessy also noted the risks associated with cannabis for some patients he treated. He suggested that a peculiar form of delirium “may be occasioned by continual hemp inebriation”. For this reason O’Shaughnessy cautioned fellow doctor’s to start with low doses when administrating cannabis to their patients.

O’Shaughnessy had a unique way of treating patients who had consumed too much cannabis. Patients were administered strong purgatives and an emetic (to cause vomiting) was administered via a blister to the neck. Leeches were also applied to patient’s temples.

His methods were drastic by modern standards to say the least. It also shows that even the greatest minds often still operate by the (now) questionable standards of the times whilst also being innovators in those fields.

Contemporary review of O’Shaughnessy’s work

O’Shaughnessy continued his research and after returning to England produced two works featuring some of India’s indigenous plants. He released The Bengal Dispensatory in 1842 and The Bengal Pharmacopoeia in 1844. Both publications lead to increased interest into the medicinal properties of certain plants, including cannabis.

When O’Shaughnessy published The Bengal Pharmacopoeia in 1844 the section on cannabis extended to 25 pages. This work has been described by James Mills in the Cannabis Britannica as “the most comprehensive assessment of the properties of cannabis” undertaken at the time.

O’Shaughnessy’s research was subsequently republished in British and European medical journals which lead to an increase in cannabis research. Soon others across Europe and the globe were undertaking research into the plant and producing their own findings and products.

Simon Honey with cannabis plants at the Kew Gardens

O’Shaughnessy returned to England in 1841 and brought back not only his research but also quantities of cannabis specimens and seeds. Cannabis was provided to groups like the Royal Pharmaceutical Societyfor research purposes.

Specimens of cannabis plants and seeds were provided to the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew in London and others.

One of the people O’Shaughnessy met on his return to London was the pharmacist Peter Squire. It was Peter Squire, working in tandem with O’Shaughnessy, who made cannabis tinctures which were available at local pharmacies.

Sir. Russell Reynolds, the personal physician to Queen Victoria, was among those who promoted cannabis’s medical use after reading O’Shaughnessy’s research. It is claimed that Sir. Russel Reynolds subsequently prescribed cannabis to Queen Victoria for menstrual pains.

It should be noted that others were also researching the medicinal properties of cannabis around the same time as O’Shaughnessy. However, O’Shaughnessy’s research had a greater impact on the field and thus he is often wrongly perceived as the only ‘Westerner’ researching cannabis at the time.

O’Shaughnessy’s impact on cannabis research is evident by the fact that between 1840 and 1900 over 100 articles appeared in scientific journals describing the medical properties of cannabis. A stark contrast to the period before that. As noted by Dr. Tod Mikuriya in his 1969 article ‘Marijuana in Medicine’ there was a “paucity of references to hemp’s intoxicating properties in the lay and medical literature of Europe before the 1800s”.

In fact O’Shaughnessy is still impacting on cannabis research to this day. It is suggested that when Dr. Tod Mikuriya reprinted O’Shaughnessy’s paper as the lead article in Marijuana: Medical Papers 1839–1972 (published in 1973) it helped reinvigorated the modern day medical interest in cannabis.

Dr. Tod Mikuriya

Dr. Tod Mikuriya’s publication, and the interest it caused, lead to more research into cannabis in the last century. This lead to some activists calling Dr. Mikuriya the grandfather of medical cannabis movement in the US’.

Perhaps by this logic we can call O’Shaughnessy the grandfather of all medical cannabis research.

It is testament to O’Shaughnessy’s ability as a scientist that he had such a profound impact on cannabis research. James Mills, the author of the Cannabis Britannica, wrote he wasn’t surprised that O’Shaughnessy was perhaps the first doctor “to find out for himself exactly what the impact of cannabis substances was rather than to rely on hearsay or on recycled versions of other writers’ compilations”.

Lancet review in 1840 of O’Shaughnessy’s work on cannabis is also testament of his character and ability. It stated that “The labours of Dr O’Shaughnessy, as a scientific chemist, are already known in the most favourable manner to our readers; but unlike the greater number of chemists, he combines practice with theory and directs his scientific discoveries to the advancement of medicine as a healing art.”

Memoir

Alongside his work with cannabis O’Shaughnessy should also be remembered for other amazing feats.

Some commentators have argued his medical cannabis work while significant is only a minor accomplishment in a lifetime of diverse work and achievements.

So it is worth looking at some of his other feats.

O’Shaughnessy conducted research into telegraph communications and even built his own network in 1837 to show the technology worked. In 1852 he was appointed the Director-General of Telegraphs in India. Within six months of undertaking work the telegraph network stretched for 800 miles. The network would eventually stretch to over 11000 miles. In 1856 O’Shaughnessy was knighted by Queen Victoria for this work.

The network later proved key to British rule in India and was a significant factor in suppressing the Indian uprising which occurred between May 1857 and July 1859.

O’Shaughnessy was also a professor of chemistry and professor of natural philosophy at the medical college in Calcutta for a period. He also climbed the medical ranks in India to become a surgeon major in 1861.

During his life O’Shaughnessy undertook research into areas such as pharmacology, chemistry, toxicology, drug clinical trials, science education, and underwater engineering. His cholera research led to some of the first experiments in treatments by intravenous injection, a precursor to the modern day IV drips.

Entry in the Dictionary of National Biography. Volume 42. (1895)

O’Shaughnessy researched the refinement of gold and this lead to him briefly working for the Indian Mint. He was in charge of attempts to unify India’s dozens of different currencies with standard coinage. However his attempts appear to have largely failed.

His broad scientific work, and much more, contribute to the claims that O’Shaugnessy was one of the greatest minds of his generation.

While O’Shaughnessy has largely been forgotten, his impact on scientific research and advancements lives on almost 130 years after his death.

Little is known about the final two decades of O’Shaughnessy’s life. We know he returned to Britain in 1860 and retired the following year. But little more is known beyond that up until his death in 1889.

In 1861 he legally changed his name to William O’Shaughnessy Brooke. It is suggested this change was to benefit from some family inheritance. However, this variation of his name is not always seen in the literature about him, much like the use of Sir before his name.

When O’Shaughnessy died in 1889 he left behind an inspiring legacy. His contributions to medical cannabis and other scientific fields cannot be downplayed. Yet like many of great minds that have existed he is largely unknown.

In recent years the emergence of the internet and online communities has lead to more learning about O’Shaughnessy’s various accomplishments. Limerick comedians Rubber Bandits are among his modern day admirers.

Almost 180 years after his groundbreaking research perhaps the best tribute we could pay O’Shaughnessy would be the regulation of cannabis. Not only could individuals access cannabis products for medicinal purposes but it would also open up and encourage more cannabis research.

Perhaps by taking a scientific approach like O’Shaughnessy did in the 1800s we can unlock even more medical potentials for cannabis.

Thanks for reading and be sure to visit us at 167 Capel Street in Dublin.

Brian Houlihan is the curator of the Dublin Hemp Museum and regularly writes about hemp. Follow him on Twitter at @dubhempmuseum and @houlihanbrian. You can also find us on Facebook.

No, The Theory of Vaccine Induced Autism Did Not Begin With Andrew Wakefield

“The story of how vaccines came to be questioned as a cause of autism dates back to the 1990s. In 1995, a group of British researchers published a cohort study in the Lancet showing that individuals who had been vaccinated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) were more likely to have bowel disease than individuals who had not received MMR. One of these researchers was gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield, MD, who went on to further study a possible link between the vaccine and bowel disease by speculating that persistent infection with vaccine virus caused disruption of the intestinal tissue that in turn led to bowel disease and neuropsychiatric disease (specifically, autism). ” – The History of Vaccines, The College of Physicians of Philadelphia.


No.
 

The story of how vaccines came to be questioned as a cause of autism dates back to the first paper describing autism in 1943.

1943

In his disorder defining paper “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact,” published in Nervous Child in 1943, Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins University included the first report of vaccine induced autistic regression. In Kanner’s case series describing the first 11 children documented to have the disorder, case number 3, “Richard M.” is reported by his mother to have begun his developmental regression following a smallpox vaccination.  From the paper:

“Case 3. Richard M. was referred to the Johns Hopkins Hospital on February 5, 1941, at 3 years, 3 months of age, with the complaint of deafness because he did not talk and did not respond to questions.”

“Following smallpox vaccination at 12 months, he had an attack of diarrhea and fever, from which he recovered in somewhat less than a week.”

“In September, 1940, the mother, in commenting on Richard’s failure to talk, remarked in her notes: I can’t be sure just when he stopped the imitation of words sounds.  It seems that he has gone backward mentally gradually for the last two years.”

The time line of Richard M, according to the paper, is thus:

November 1937 – Born

November 1938 – Vaccinated with Smallpox vaccine

September 1940 – Mother reports developmental regression beginning approximately two years previously, the autumn of 1938.

February 1941 – Referred to Hopkins for evaluation, and in 1943, becomes the third child to be described as autistic by Leo Kanner in his disorder defining paper, the first paper published on autism, 55 years before Wakefield.

Yet Wakefield et. al. Included parental reports of vaccine induced regression in their 1998 paper, “Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children” in the Lancet in 1998, and are credited (or blamed) with originating the discussion on vaccine induced autism.

Despite the fact that the 55 year old discussion had been developed, published on, and the subject of official HHS inquiries before anyone ever knew the name Wakefield.

In the 40s and 50s, the Freudians were in command of the narrative on childhood mental health, and maternal rejection of the child was asserted as the source of the rare disorder.  This until Bernard Rimland, Ph. D. ended the supremacy of the unfounded and misogynistic theory, and began the era of medical investigation into the origins of autism in the 1960s.

1976

In March of 1976, in Germany,  Eggers published, “Autistic Syndrome (Kanner) and Vaccination Against Smallpox” wherein he described that:

“3-4 weeks following an otherwise uncomplicated first vaccination against smallpox a boy, then aged 15 months and last seen at the age of 5 1/2 years, gradually developed a complete Kanner syndrome. The question whether vaccination and early infantile autism might be connected is being discussed. A causal relationship is considered extremely unlikely. But vaccination is recognized as having a starter function for the onset of autism.”

1989

From the first time I heard the name “Wakefield” in the media in the early 2000s, I had always known that the story that Wakefield kicked off the suspicion that vaccines may cause autism in 1998 was bogus, because the first time I heard the theory was in an undergraduate psychology class in 1989 at George Mason University.  During a very short discussion on the rare childhood developmental disorder called “Autism” that Dustin Hoffman had in that movie Rainman, our professor noted that it might be cause by vaccines.  I made a mental note of that and decided to look into it when I had kids someday.

1991

By the opening of the 1990s the vaccine-autism causation discussion was so widespread that the Institute of Medicine was including it in their reports on vaccine safety funded by the National Institutes of Health, published by the National Academy of Sciences and edited by none other than Harvard’s Harvey Fineberg:

Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines: A Report of the Committee to Review the Adverse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines.
Editors
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review the Adverse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines; Howson CP, Howe CJ, Fineberg HV, editors.
Source
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1991.
The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health.
Excerpt
Parents have come to depend on vaccines to protect their children from a variety of diseases. Some evidence suggests, however, that vaccination against pertussis (whooping cough) and rubella (German measles) is, in a small number of cases, associated with increased risk of serious illness. This book examines the controversy over the evidence and offers a comprehensively documented assessment of the risk of illness following immunization with vaccines against pertussis and rubella. Based on extensive review of the evidence from epidemiologic studies, case histories, studies in animals, and other sources of information, the book examines: The relation of pertussis vaccines to a number of serious adverse events, including encephalopathy and other central nervous system disorders, sudden infant death syndrome, autism, Guillain-Barre syndrome, learning disabilities, and Reye syndrome. The relation of rubella vaccines to arthritis, various neuropathies, and thrombocytopenic purpura. The volume, which includes a description of the committee’s methods for evaluating evidence and directions for future research, will be important reading for public health officials, pediatricians, researchers, and concerned parents.
Copyright © 1991 by the National Academy of Sciences.”

1998

Andrew Wakefield, according to the current false narrative and revisionist history pushed by mainstream medicine and their media partners, magically erases 55 years of history and discovers the vaccine-autism causation theory for the first time, in much the same way that Christopher Columbus “discovered” the Americas, half a millennium or so after the Vikings had made my home state of Maine a vacation spot.

He did what Kanner did in 1943.  Took patient histories, and including parental reports in a paper.

CURRENT YEAR

The scientific record on vaccine autism causation began with the scientific record on autism, and extends to today.  The vaccine industry narriative that Wakefield was the beginning and end of the plausabilty of vaccine induced autism theory is an absurd lie.  Read the record for yourself:

151 Research Papers Supporting Vaccine/Autism Causation

Ginger Taylor, MS

Mainstream research has found that vaccines and their ingredients can cause the underlying medical conditions that committed physicians and researchers are commonly finding in children who have been given an autism diagnosis. These conditions include gastrointestinal damage, immune system impairment, chronic infections, mitochondrial disorders, autoimmune conditions, neurological regression, glial cell activation, interleukin-6 secretion dysregulation, brain inflammation, damage to the blood–brain barrier, seizures, synaptic dysfunction, dendritic cell dysfunction, mercury poisoning, aluminum toxicity, gene activation and alteration, glutathione depletion, impaired methylation, oxidative stress, impaired thioredoxin regulation, mineral deficiencies, impairment of the opioid system, endocrine dysfunction, cellular apoptosis, and other disorders.

Caviat emptor.

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